Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.
Genus:
Arachis L.

Arachis hypogaea L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is a cultigen from Bolivia. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Annual erect or straggling herb ± 30 cm. long.
Morphology Stem
Stems at first pilose, later glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 4-foliolate; leaflets obovate or elliptic, 1–7 cm. long, 0.7–3.2 cm. wide, rounded or emarginate and mucronate at the apex, narrowly rounded to the base, glabrous, or sparsely pilose beneath, ciliate; free part of petiole 1.5–7 cm. long; petiolules 1–2 mm. long; stipules 1.5– 4 cm. long; free part linear-lanceolate, very acute, 0.6–3.2 cm. long, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, apparently solitary and stalked; primary bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1–1.4 cm. long, 4–5 mm. wide, biapiculate; secondary bracts similar but bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle 0.2–4 cm. long, pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, mostly with red nerves, 0.7–1.3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–9.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods 2–6 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. wide, the gynophore becoming 1–20 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds irregularly ovoid, 1–2 cm. long and ± two-thirds the length in diameter.
Figures
Fig. 63, p. 441.
Habitat
Occasionally found as an escape
Distribution
T1 T3 T4 T7 T8 U1 U4 Z probably originally native to Brazil, but now very widely cultivated throughout the tropics and extensively in certain parts of East Africa, particularly the Lake Province of Tanganyika (Bukoba, etc.) and Tabora Districtthe attempts to cultivate the plant as a very major production undertaking at Kongwa (T5) and Nachingwea (T8) failed

[ILDIS]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Cultigen not known in the wild
Ecology
Africa: Cultivated
Morphology General Habit
Annual, Not climbing, Herb
Vernacular
Alune Americane, Alune Depemynt, Amendoim, Arachide, Aracide, Arakhis Podzemnyi, Cacachuet, Cacahouete, Cacahuete, Cacahuetes, Earthnut, Erdnuss, Erfyndygy, Eryongok, Goober, Ground Nut, Groundnut, Jordnot, Khuasan, Kitaiski Boby, Kitaiskie Oreshki, Maapa

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cacahuate, cacahuete, maní, maní blanco, maní blanco de picón, maní de picón, maní rojo, yacana

[FZ]

Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

Morphology General Habit
Annual, erect or straggling herb c. 30 cm long.
Morphology Stem
Stems at first pilose, later glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 4-foliolate; leaflets 1–7 × 0.7–3.2 cm, obovate or elliptic, rounded or emarginate and mucronate at the apex, narrowly rounded to the base, glabrous, or sparsely pilose beneath, ciliate; free part of petiole 1.5–7 cm long; petiolules 1–2 mm long; stipules 1.5–4 cm long, free part 0.6–3.2 cm long, linear-lanceolate, very acute, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, apparently solitary and stalked; primary bracts 10–14 × 4–5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, biapiculate; secondary bracts similar but 2-fid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle 0.2–4 cm long, pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, usually with red nerves, 7–13 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–9.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 2–6 × 1–1.5 cm, the gynophore becoming 1–20 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2 cm long and c. two-thirds the length in diameter, irregularly ovoid.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual, c. 30 cm long
Morphology Leaves Leaflets
Leaflets obovate or elliptic, 1–7 x 0.7–3.2 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle 0.2–4 cm long, pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 0.7–1.3 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod 2–6 x 1–1.5 cm; gynophore becoming 1–20 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynophore
Gynophore becoming 1–20 cm long.
Distribution
Sometimes grown at least in S2 and S3, and occasionally found as an escape.
Vernacular
Loos (Somali)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 280 - 1850 m.; Amazonia, Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, trepadora

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean. Elevation range: 280–1850 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Putumayo.
Habit
Herb, Climbing.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Cacahuate, Maní, Planta de maní, Tiga

[ILDIS]
Use
Chemical products, Domestic, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Weed

[FSOM]
Use
Sometimes grown as an oilcrop

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Bolivia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Arachis hypogaea L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1995 Guareco, I. [161], Bolivia K000731401
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122217
Brandyge, J. [32429], Ecuador K000731402
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122214
Mendoza, M. [1392], Bolivia K000731400
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810], India K001122216
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5810], Nepal K001122218
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122215
Schinini, A. [24221], Argentina Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata K000731431

First published in Sp. Pl.: 741 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Atahuachi, M., Seijo, J.G., Simpson, C.E. & Montenegro Valls, J.F. (2021). Personal communication on Fabaceae, Arachis. 1.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nikitin, V.V. (ed.) (1949). Flora Turkmenii 4: 1-364. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 158.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Atahuachi, M., Seijo, J.G., Simpson, C.E. & Montenegro Valls, J.F. (2021). Personal communication on Fabaceae, Arachis. 1.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Flora of Baja California: 1-1025. Stanford university press, Stanford, California.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appl. 13: 689 (1933).
  • Bak. f., Leguminosae of Tropical Africa: 322 (1929).
  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 158 (1871).
  • Harms in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1), fig. 301 (1915).
  • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 576 (1958).
  • Hoehne in Fl. Brasilíca 25 (II. 122): 18 (1940).
  • J. Léon, in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 5: 351 (1954).
  • J. Meikle in Rhod. Agric. Journ. 62: 109–113 (1965).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 741 (1753).
  • Purseglove, Trop. Crops 1: 225, fig. 34 (1968).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 129 (1949).

International Legume Database and Information Service

  • Aliev, R. A. (1950). In: Flora Azerbaijana, Vol. 5. Baku. (Rus)
  • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
  • Balashev, L. L., Ed. (1970). Dictionary of useful plants in twenty european languages.
  • Bojer, W. (1837). Hortus Mauritianus ou Enumeration des Plants... l'ile Maurice
  • Dalziel, J. M. (1937). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa
  • Geideman, T. S. (1986). Opredelitel vysshikh rasteni Moldavskoi SSR, 3rd ed.
  • Gillett, J. B. et al. (1971). Papilionoideae. In: Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Milne-Redhead & Polhill
  • Greuter, W. et al. (Eds.) (1989). Med-Checklist Vol. 4 (published)
  • Grierson, A. J. C. & Long, D. G. (1987). Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 1. (Part 3). Edinburgh: RBG
  • Haines, H. H. (1922). The Botany of Bihar & Orissa, Part 3. London.
  • Howard, R. A. et al. (1988). Dicotyledoneae Part 1. Fl. Lesser Antilles Arnold Arboretum
  • Kudrjaschev, S. N. (1955). In: Flora Uzbekistanica, Vol. 3. Taschkent. (Rus)
  • Liogier, A. H. (1985). La Flore de la Espanola. III
  • Liogier, A. H. (1988). Desc. Flora Puerto Rico & Adjacent Is-Spermatophyta Vol. II
  • Mohanan, M. & Henry, A. N. (1994). Flora of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  • Palibin, I. V. (1948). In: Flora URSS, Vol. 13. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Parham, J. W. (1972). Plants of the Fiji Islands
  • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
  • Purseglove, J. W. (1968). Tropical Crops:Dicotyledons. Longman
  • Ridley, H. N. (1922). Flora of the Malay Peninsula Vol I
  • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
  • Rudd, V. E. (1991). A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108-381.
  • Shetty, B. V. & Singh, V. (1987). Flora of Rajasthan Vol. 1. Flora of India Series 2
  • Singh, A. N. (1993). In: Verma, D. M. & al. (Eds.) Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Vol. 1.
  • Smartt, J. & Simmonds, N. W. (eds) (1995). Evolution of Crop Plants - 2nd ed. Longman: Harlow
  • Standley, P. C. & Steyermark, J. A (1946). Fieldiana, Bot. 24(5) :1-425 Leguminosae
  • Terrell, E. E. (1977). Checklist of Names for 3, 000 Vas. Pl... Agric. Handbook No. 505
  • Thuan, N. et al. (1987). In: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam, Vol. 23. P.
  • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
  • Ulziykhutag, N. (1989). Bobovye Mongolskoi Narodnoi Respubliki, Vol. 2. Doct. Thes.
  • Vassiljeva, L. I. (1987). In Flora Partis Europaeae URSS. Vol. 6. Leningrad. (Rus).
  • Vaughan, R. E. (1937). Mauritius Inst. Bull. 1(1). Catalogue of flowering plants ...
  • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
  • Visyulina, O. D. (1954). Leguminosae. In: Flora URSR, Vol. 6. Kiev. (Ukr)
  • Welsh, S. L. (1998). Flora Societensis

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0