Araceae Juss.

Dieffenbachia concinna Croat & Grayum

This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Nicaragua to Panama.


CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

General Description
Small, erect herb, 0.6-1.3 m tall, sap milky; internodes glossy, 1.5-4(7.5) cm long, 1-4 cm diam., medium green to dark green, obscurely marbled light to medium green. LEAVES erect-arching, petioles 7.5-25(35) cm long (averaging 17 cm long), terete and obtusely sulcate near apex or subterete to C-shaped or D-shaped in cross section, flat to shallowly sulcate adaxially (the margins obtuse to acute), rounded or sometimes acute abaxially, moerately erect, semiglossy or almost matte, dark green to olive-green, blotched striate or streaked white or silver-green, drying green to sometimes light yellow-brown, sheathing from lower 2/5 to nearly throughout (averaging 0.63 of length); sheath 6.7-13(20) cm long (averaging 9.5 cm), to 1.5 cm diam., margins erect to involute, the tip asymmetrically articulate to rounded and free-ending, with one side obtuse to rounded, with the other side acute to obtuse; unsheathed portion 1-13 cm long, to 1.5 cm diam; blades usually ± elliptic, ovate- elliptic, rarely ovate or broadly lanceolate. 16-36 cm long averaging 23 cm long), (7.8)10-] 5.5(20.5) cm wide (averaging 12 cm wide),1.5-2.9 times longer than wide, broadest usually at or near middle, 0.8-2.4 times longer than petiole, equilulxral to slightly inequilateral, one side to 1 cm wider than the other side, equilaterally acuminate at apex, the acumen sometimes apiculate, broadly acute or usually rounded, slightly inequilateral at base moderately coriaceous, weakly to moderately licolorous; upper surface semiglossy to glossy, dark green or rarely white to cream or yellow-green splotched or flecked, drying dark olive-green, dark gray-green to yellowish brown; lower surface moderately paler, matte to weakly glossy, green, rarely dark gray- green, drying yellowish brown to green, rarely dark gray-green; midrib flat to broadly flat-convex and concolorous to paler than surface above (sometimes paler in distal 1/3 above), low-convex to convex or rounded-triangular, slightly paler than surface be- low, drying light brown to dark brown with medial portion usually drying darker; primary lateral veins 6 to 12(14) per side, spreading from midrib at a 45°-70° angle (sometimes arising at an acute angle), only rarely at different angles on opposite side of blade, weakly sunken above, convex to obscurely raised below; the interprimary veins sometimes visible, 1 between each pair of primary lateral veins; minor veins indistinct to visible and darker than surface below. INFLORESCENCES 2 to 8 per axil; peduncle (2.5)8-17.5 cm long (averaging 10.5 cm long), somewhat compressed dorsiventrally in cross section, 3-4 mm wide on drying; spathe 11-25.7 cm long, 1.5-2.0 cm wide when furled (as long as or up to 2 times longer than peduncle and aver- aging 1.6 times longer), constricted 4.5 cm above base, the constricted area 1.8-3 cm wide when flattened, medium to pale green outside, somewhat darker on tube except white on open face, uniformly paler within, drying dark brown to blackened throughout; spathe blade 3.3 cm wide when flattened; spathe tube 4.5-8.5 c m wide when flattened, paler inside; spadix protruding forward at anthesis, 12-14 cm long; free portion 6.5-9.5 cm long; pistillate portion tapered towards apex, 4.5-9 cm x 5- 12 mm, stipe and axis pale green, fertile staminate portion white, tapered slightly toward both ends, 8- 9 cm long, 7-10 mm diam. midway; sterile staminate portion 2.5-4 cm long; mostly sterile intermediate segment 5-7 mm diam., mostly bare but with a scattering of staminodia on both ends (especially at base); pistils 42 lo 65, closely spaced; ovary globose, 1-2.5 mm diam., pale green; stigma pale yellow; staminodia 1-5 mm long, up to 3 times longer than pistil, somewhat flattened toward base and free at base, tapering and somewhat globular, 1-2 mm diam. at apex; svllandria with flowers ir- regularly rounded, 0.8-1.1l I mm diam. INFRUCTESCENCE with spathe yellow-orange to bright orange outside; spadix to ()-ts c m long; berries bright red to orange-red, oblong-ellipsoid, to 1 cm long, 8 mm diam.
Dieffenbachia concinna ranges from southeastern Nicaragua along the entire Atlantic slope to the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica.
Some- times locally common in rocky sites along streams.
Flowering in D. concinna occurs mostly during the middle of the rainy season, from July through November (rarely December), especially September and October. A cultivated collection at the Missouri Botanical Garden flowered repeatedly over a two-week period during late May and early June. Collections with immature fruits have been seen from December to March. Mature fruits occur primarily December through June, especially January to May but with one fruiting collection each seen in August and September.
The species is recognized by the glossiness of all parts of the plant; its relatively small stature; moderately coriaceous, more or less elliptic, weakly inequilateral blades; and auriculate petiolar sheaths.

Native to:

Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá

Dieffenbachia concinna Croat & Grayum appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Novon 9: 492 (1999 publ. 2000)

Accepted by

  • Croat, T. (2004). Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 668-772.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.


CATE Araceae

  • Croat, T. 2004. Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.. 91 (4): 668-772

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.