Theobroma cacao L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 782 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Costa Rica to S. Tropical America. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Brazil North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, China South-Central, Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Laos, Leeward Is., Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae. Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Molino, J.-F., Sabatier, D., Grenand, P., Engel, J., Frame, D., Delprete, P.G., Fleury, M., Odonne, G., Davy, D., Lucas, E.J. & Martin, C.A. (2022). An annotated checklist of the tree species of French Guiana, including vernacular nomenclature. Adansonia, sér. 3, 44: 345-903.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Ranker, T.A., Sam, C. & Balick, M.J. (2022). Towards a checklist of the vascular flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105-118.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

  • Coe, S. D. & Coe, M. D. (2007). The True Story of Chocolate. 2nd Edition. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London.
  • Coe, S. D. (1994). America’s First Cuisines. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  • Foster, N. & Cordell, L. S. (eds) (1996). Chillies to Chocolate. The Food the Americas Gave the World. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • Schultes, R. E. & Raffauf, R. F. (1990). The Healing Forest. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Simpson, B. B. & Ogorzaly, M. C. (2001). Economic Botany. Plants in Our World. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York.
  • Smart, J. & Simmonds, N. W. (1995). The Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd Edition. Longman Group UK Ltd., Harlow.
  • Young, A. M. (2007). The Chocolate Tree: Natural History of Cacao. Florida University Press, Gainsville.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae. Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Ranker, T.A., Sam, C. & Balick, M.J. (2022). Towards a checklist of the vascular flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105-118.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.C.B. 10: 211 (1963)
  • Fl. Eth. 2(2): 165 (1995)
  • I.T.U.: 68 (1953)
  • Sp. Pl. 782 (1753)
  • T.T.C.L.: 604 (1949)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 467, fig. (1949)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1994 Guareco, I.; Balderrama, J. & Hinojoza, I. [32] Bolivia K000731721 Yes
Jan 1, 1991 Flores; Tello [341] Peru K000731718 Yes
Jan 1, 1991 Lowrie, S.R.; Lowy, B.; Nelson, B.; Cid Ferreira, C.A.; Morreira, M. [521] Brazil K000731712 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Flores; Tello [77] Peru K000731719 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Alexiades, M.; Pesha, V. [958] Peru K000731716 Yes
Oct 27, 1987 Buchanan-Smith, Hannah [47] Bolivia K000731723 Yes
May 24, 1986 Cid Ferreira, C.A.; et al. [7236] Brazil K000731714 Yes
Jan 1, 1964 Saltzmann [s.n.] Brazil K000381047 Unknown Type Material Yes
Feb 1, 1963 Holton, I.F [765] Venezuela K001486896 Yes
Jan 1, 1954 Bartley, B.G.; Holliday, P.C. [T51] Colombia K001486882 Yes
K001572224 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-70000.591 No
Venezuela K:SPC-70000.385 No
s.coll [4736] Brazil K000731710 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-80014.000 No
K:SPC-08876.000 No
Little, E.L, Jr. [6483] Ecuador K000731715 Yes
Sasaki, D.; Milliken, W.; Philippsen, M.; Bessa, M.A.; E; Piva, J.H. [1884] Brazil K000447917 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-66696.000 No
K:SPC-65383.000 No
Anderson, A.B. [1129] Brazil K001213355 Yes
Milliken, W. [1816] Brazil K000731711 No
Graham, J.; Schunke, J. [253] Peru K000731717 Yes
Trinidad and Tobago K:SPC-65445.000 No
United Kingdom K:SPC-80032.000 No
Anderson [s.n.] Saint Lucia K000381049 Unknown Type Material Yes
K:SPC-70000.468 No
Trail, J.W.H. [63] Brazil K001213357 Yes
Silva, L.A.M. [667] Brazil K001213351 Yes
K:SPC-70000.490 No
Dorr, L.J.; Barnett, L.C.; Cuello, N.; Diaz, W. [DORR7864] Venezuela K000731713 Yes
K:SPC-70000.503 No
Milliken, W. [1816] Brazil K:SPC-29047.884 No
Brazil K000381048 Unknown Type Material Yes
Trinidad and Tobago K:SPC-70000.396 No
Grenada K:SPC-70000.472 No
Irvine, D. [D1 418] Ecuador K:SPC-51211.000 No
Hinton, G.B.; et al. [7531] Mexico K000661171 No
Jamaica K:SPC-70000.571 No
Cazalet, P.; Pennington, T. [7653] Ecuador K:SPC-18968.000 No
Cid Ferreira, C.A.; Moreira, M. [3102] Brazil K001213359 Yes
Ule, E. [5032] Brazil K001213356 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-70000.572 No
Trinidad and Tobago K:SPC-70000.473 No
Venezuela K:SPC-66668.000 No
Indonesia K:SPC-70000.445 No
Trail, J.W.H. [58] Brazil K001213358 Yes
Hostmann [440] Suriname K001213352 Yes
Suriname K:SPC-80003.000 No
Hinton, G.B.; et al. [7531] Mexico K000661172 No
Trinidad and Tobago K:SPC-80008.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132315 Unknown Type Material Yes
Prance, G.T. [8079] Brazil K001213354 Yes
Forbes, J. [34] Brazil K001213353 Yes
K:SPC-70000.342 No
Ghana K:SPC-70000.380 No
Suriname K:SPC-80002.000 No
K:SPC-08878.000 No
K:SPC-66655.000 No
Venezuela K:SPC-80006.000 No
K:SPC-08877.000 No
Peru K000731720 Yes
Bolivia K000731721 Yes
Bolivia K000731722 Yes
Bolivia K000731723 Yes
Bolivia K000731724 Yes
Bolivia K001378805 Yes
Bolivia K001378806 Yes
Bolivia K001378811 Yes
Bolivia K001378826 Yes
Bolivia K001378832 Yes
Bolivia K001378833 Yes
Bolivia K001378834 Yes
colombia K001486883 Yes
colombia K001486884 Yes
colombia K001486885 Yes
colombia K001486886 Yes
colombia K001486887 Yes
colombia K001486888 Yes
colombia K001486889 Yes
colombia K001486890 Yes
colombia K001486891 Yes
colombia K001486892 Yes
colombia K001486893 Yes
colombia K001486894 Yes
colombia K001486895 Yes
Venezuela K001486896 Yes
Peru K001486897 Yes
Peru K001486898 Yes
Peru K001486899 Yes
Ecuador K001486900 Yes
Ecuador K001486901 Yes
Ecuador K001486902 Yes
Ecuador K001486903 Yes
Ecuador K001486904 Yes
Bolivia K001486905 Yes
Bolivia K001486906 Yes
Bolivia K001486907 Yes
Bolivia K001486908 Yes
Bolivia K001486909 Yes
Theobroma leiocarpum K:SPC-65372.000 No
Trinidad and Tobago Theobroma pentagonum K:SPC-70000.341 No

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0