Genus:
Plantago L.

Plantago major L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Arabian Peninsula, Macaronesia, N. & S. Africa. It is has environmental uses, as animal food and a medicine and for food.

[FTEA]

Plantaginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
An extremely variable, usually robust, glabrous or pubescent herb, with short stout erect stem and numerous adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves borne in a rosette, spirally arranged; blade ovate, elliptic or rarely rounded, (1-)10- 20(-30) cm. long. (0.7-)5-9.5(-17) cm. wide, rounded at the apex, entire, sinuate or irregularly toothed, 3-9-nerved at the base, abruptly narrowed at the base into a petiole usually ± equalling the blade, 1-20 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences spicate, the spikes nearly always cylindric, almost invariably simple, (0.5)10-15(-70) cm. long; peduncles (l-)7-15(-40) cm. long; bracts 1-2.5 mm. long, acute, brownish with a brown keel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly elliptic to rounded, 1.5-2 mm. long and wide, keeled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish- or yellowish-white, 2-4 mm. long; lobes elliptic-ovate, ovate or narrowly triangular, 1-1.25 mm. long, obtuse or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers at first lilac, later whitish or yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose or subconic, 2-3 mm. long, 3-34-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown to dark brown or olivaceous with lighter belt on back, ellipsoidal or angular, 1-1.7 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, the ventral side more convex than the dorsal side; hilum lighter.
Figures
Fig. 1/1, 2.
Habitat
Grassy river-banks; 1665 m.
Distribution
K4 ranging naturally throughout Europe and northern and central Asia, but now naturalized throughout most of the world

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
chiracru, chiracu, llantén

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 100 - 2600 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FZ]

Plantaginaceae, G. Lehmann. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb, very variable, usually robust, glabrous or pubescent, growing with a short straight erect stem, with numerous adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in a basal rosette spirally arranged, petiolate; lamina (1.5) 5–30 (40) × (0.5) 3–10 (17) cm., ovate to elliptic or rarely subcircular, entire sinuate or irregularly dentate, 3–9-veined at the base, usually glabrous or rarely pubescent, with the apex rounded to subobtuse, abruptly narrowed into the petiole; petiole 3–38 cm. long, usually as long as the lamina or shorter, cauliculate, flexible, glabrous or rarely pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scape (1) 7–15 (47) cm. long, 1–4 mm. in diam., erect or ascending, striate, glabrous or sometimes with short, appressed or ascending hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence spicate, the spikes nearly always cylindrical, almost invariably simple, (0.5) 10–15 (70) cm. long, 3–8 mm. in diam.; flowers densely to loosely arranged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 1–2 (2.5) mm. long, ovate, glabrous, midrib distinct.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 1.5–2 (2.5) mm. long, almost boat-shaped, usually equal, glabrous, green with narrow scarious margins, midrib prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tube c. 2 mm. long, glabrous; lobes 1–1.25 mm. long, lanceolate to ovate or narrowly triangular, acute to subacute, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2–3 mm. long, exserted; anthers at first lilac, later whitish or yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose; pistil longer than the flower, hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 2–3 (5) mm. long, ovoid to globose or subconical, (3) 8–16 (34) seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–1.7 mm. long, ellipsoid or ellipsoid-trigonous, with the ventral side more convex than the dorsal.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb, acaulous, (10–)20–40(–70) cm tall with a short rootstock and many fibrous roots
Morphology Leaves
Leaves large, elliptic-ovate to orbicular-ovate, (5–)10–25(–40) × (1–) 4–10 (–20) cm, base tapering into petiole about as long as lamina, apex rounded, margins entire or irregularly dentate or sinuate-dentate, strongly 5–9-veined, glabrous or rough with sparse minute hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scape erect, ascending or arcuate, equal to leaves or shorter, pilose with sparse minute soft hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spike dense or lax, linear or linear-cylindrical, (8–)5–30(–50) cm; bract ovate, as long as or usually shorter than calyx, 1–2 mm, along midrib herbaceous and slightly keeled, scarious at margins, entire, obtuse, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate-elliptic to orbicular, 1.5– 2.5 mm, with a distinct midrib, margins scarious, obtuse, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish or yellowish, lobes ovate, 0.5–1 mm long, obtuse or acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule longer than calyx, globose or conical, tapering above, 2-celled with 4–30 seeds
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds angular, smooth.
Ecology
In wet shaded places in farms and orchards, muddy places amongst rocks, near banks of shallow ponds and streams, in rich humus soil and on rich soil with limestone in upland forests; alt.: 150–900m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar.–Aug.
Distribution
Throughout Iraq except in the desert and plateau region; found in the upper plains and foothills and the alluvial plains. Europe to Siberia, from the Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabian Peninsula to Iran and India; naturalized in N America and many other parts of the world.
Vernacular
BIZIR DINBIL (recorded by Blakelock, loc.cit.); TARAQUZ (recorded on label by Guest).

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean. Elevation range: 100–2600 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, desert, artificial - terrestrial.

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Seeds - The seeds are eaten by birds (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Injuries
Leaves - Used in poultices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Leaves - Used in poultices to promote healing (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Pain
Leaves - Used as an analgesic (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Leaves - Used in the treatment of acne (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FIQ]
Use
A species of some economic value whose seeds and leaves are used medicinally as a laxative and a coolant; also used for application on boils. Several subspecific ranks were recognized in the original manuscript based mainly on leaf characters. I found it difficult to assign every collection to the subspecific rank recognized as many intermediates exist. The species is best treated as a single polymorphic species. The var., subvar. and f. are listed in synonymy.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cambodia, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Labrador, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Maine, Malaya, Manitoba, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Samoa, Saskatchewan, Seychelles, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Plantain, Red-leaved Plantain
Spanish
Llantén, plantén, plantain.

Plantago major L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 28, 2016 Jusimin Duaneh [141], Sabah K000222935 No
Oct 28, 2016 Jusimin Duaneh [447], Sabah K000222936 No
Oct 28, 2016 Powell, D.R. [X.I.1356], Christmas I. K000222937 No
Oct 28, 2016 Chantaranothai, P. et al. [90/652], Thailand K000222938 No
Oct 28, 2016 Ramadhanil et al. [276], Sulawesi K000224027 No
Oct 28, 2016 Syahida Emiza, S. [51455], Peninsular Malaysia K000610249 No
Oct 28, 2016 Fidilis, K. [127757], Sabah K000611029 No
Oct 28, 2016 Jimaun, J. [64], Sabah K000610248 No
Oct 28, 2016 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 37], Vietnam K000610251 No
Oct 28, 2016 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 2], Vietnam K000610250 No
Jan 1, 2009 Takeuchi, W. et al. [20149], Papua New Guinea K000610247 No
Weaver, A., United Kingdom 16950.000 No
Ogden, W.J. 17443.000 No
Weaver, A., United Kingdom 21928.000 No
Thomas [s.n.] K000779550 Yes
Aunier [s.n.], France K000779554 Yes
Wallroth [s.n.] K000779552 Yes
Thomas [s.n.] K000779546 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 154], United Kingdom K000914356 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [8470], Brazil K001048649 Yes
Glaziou, A. [12111], Brazil K001048650 Yes
Welwitsch [514], Angola K001008383 Yes
Couto, C. [101], Angola K001008384 Yes
Holuby, J.L. [s.n.], Czech Republic K000779555 Yes
Miers, J. [3550], Brazil K001048648 Yes
Thomas [s.n.], Switzerland K000779548 Yes
Menezes, A. [3501], Angola K001008382 Yes
Bolland, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001048645 Yes
Aitchison, J.E.T. [516], Afghanistan K000779586 isotype Yes
Thomas [s.n.] K000779551 Yes
Gay, J. [s.n.] K000779553 Yes
Thomas [s.n.], Switzerland K000779549 Yes
Reita, P.R. [3219], Brazil K001048651 Yes
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001048646 Yes
Holuby, J.L. [s.n.], Hungary K000779556 Yes
Prost, T.C. [s.n.] K000779547 Yes
Day, C.D. [766], Turkey K000341699 No
Glaziou [7799], Brazil K001048647 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 112 (1753)

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  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Plantaginaceae: 1-7.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

Flora of Iraq

  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 442 (1950);
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  • Pilger in Engl., Pflanzenr. 102 (IV. 269): 41 (1937);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Lowland Iraq: 555 (1964);
  • Tutel in Fl. Turk. 7: 507 (1982);
  • Verdc. in FTEA Plantag.: 2 (1971);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 136 (1950);

Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
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  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 503 (1900).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 112 (1753).
  • Pilg. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 269: 41 (1937).
  • Sagar & Harper in Journ. Ecol. 52: 189-205 (1964).
  • Verdc. in Journ. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 24 (108): 60 (1964).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M., Timoshyna, A., & Window, J. (2014). European Red List of medicinal plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 10:907382.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

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    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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