Citharexylum spinosum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Caribbean, Panama to N. South America. It is used as a medicine and for food.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
It is a shrub or small tree to 15 m..
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 3.5–29 × 1–11.5 cm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Very fragrant white, cream or reddish flowers in simple or compound axillary and terminal racemes 2.5–35 cm. long; corolla ± 5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits blackish, fleshy, oblong, ± 8 mm. long.

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Almizclillo

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from Barbados.
Morphology General
A shrub or tree up to 16 m tall, without spines; branches and branchlets 4-angled, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiolate; lamina 4.5–21 × l.5–8 cm oblong, elliptic to obovate, acute or very shortly acuminate to obtuse or rounded and sometimes emarginate at the apex, more or less cuneate towards the base and there with 1–3 pairs of glands, entire, chartaceous to coriaceous, shiny and glabrous on both faces or shortly pubescent beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes mostly terminal, 3.5–26.5 cm long, usually lax, nutant or pendulous, many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers odoriferous, usually functionally dioecious
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2.5–4 mm long, cup-shaped, thin, with the apex very shortly 5-dentate or truncate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or greenish-white; corolla tube 2–6 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe up to 13 × 12 mm, oblong or subglobose, pink or red to orange or purple when immature, then purplish or black at maturity, surrounded at the base by the persistent, indurated calyx.
Note
  Brummitt 9222 (K), from a plant cultivation on Maone Estate, Blantyre Distr., Malawi, is perhaps C. spinosum L. Balsinhas 1836 has leaves shortly and finely pubescent beneath and perhaps belongs to var. subvillosum Moldenke.  However, considering the great variation of the species, this variety is not recognized here.
Distribution
Native of Florida, southern United States, West Indies and northern South America.  Cultivated in some countries. Mozambique District code: MOZ M.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Colombia

[UPFC]
Distribution
Native to Colombia.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland.

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Bahamas, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Netherlands Antilles, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Bermuda, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Mozambique, Tunisia

Citharexylum spinosum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2010 Hamilton, M.A. [333], Montserrat 78043.000 No
Aug 15, 2006 Robertson [7522], Kenya K000194749 No
Oct 1, 1935 Britton, N.L. [233], Bahamas Citharexylum fruticosum var. villosum K000487159 isotype Yes
Oct 1, 1935 Small, J.K. [8583], Bahamas Citharexylum fruticosum var. smallii K000487160 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2009 Parcela 1 [438], Mato Grosso Citharexylum macrophyllum K000579886 Yes
Jun 20, 1986 Ferreira, C.A.C. [7361], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944241 Yes
Jan 1, 1980 Prance, G.T. [11160], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944244 Yes
Jan 1, 1967 Prance, G.T. [4370], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944245 Yes
Jan 1, 1965 Silva, N.T. [57802], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944242 Yes
Balée, W.L. [2138], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944247 Yes
Milliken, W. [M463], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944248 Yes
Milliken, W. [M463], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944246 Yes
Silva, M.G. [2871], Brazil Citharexylum macrophyllum K000944243 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 625 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • O'Leary, N. & al. (2021). Insights into the Taxonomy of Citharexylum (Verbenaceae): A Revision of the South American Taxa Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 106: 167-233.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist notulae, 10 Willdenowia 49: 95-115.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • O'Leary, N. & al. (2021). Insights into the Taxonomy of Citharexylum (Verbenaceae): A Revision of the South American Taxa Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 106: 167-233.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist notulae, 10 Willdenowia 49: 95-115.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0