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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to SW. Pacific.
Diospyros ferrea

[FTEA]

Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrub or small tree 4-18 m. high, with dense crown; bark brown, rough; heartwood black; slash red to pink or white.
Morphology General Scales
Bud-scales absent or minute and fugaceous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves coppery green when young, subcoriaceous, drying pale brown; lamina broadly elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic, 1-11 cm. long, 0.8-3.5 cm. wide, apex usually shortly acuminate or subacuminate, sometimes obtuse or rounded, rounded to cuneate at base, lower surface glabrous except for a few hairs, chiefly on the midrib and margin; secondary nerves in ± 5-9 pairs, together with the tertiary nerves and veins forming an indistinct reticulum.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers subsessile in 1-3(-4)-flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’ s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 1-3 mm. long, densely setulose; calyx 3 mm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; calyx-lobes 3, ± triangular, very variable in shape and size; corolla white, 5 mm. long, lobed to just below the middle; corolla-lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid-petaline lines, otherwise glabrous; stamens 8-14, in pairs; filaments 0.5-1 mm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs; rudimentary ovary represented by a tuft of hairs. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’ s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided; staminodes absent; ovary 3 mm. long, conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
sex Male
Male flowers subsessile in 1-3(-4)-flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’ s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 1-3 mm. long, densely setulose; calyx 3 mm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; calyx-lobes 3, ± triangular, very variable in shape and size; corolla white, 5 mm. long, lobed to just below the middle; corolla-lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid-petaline lines, otherwise glabrous; stamens 8-14, in pairs; filaments 0.5-1 mm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs; rudimentary ovary represented by a tuft of hairs.
sex Female
Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’ s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided; staminodes absent; ovary 3 mm. long, conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, broadly ellipsoid or depressed-globose, ± 1-1.3 cm. long, 0.9-1.2 cm. wide, sparsely adpressed hairy or glabrous except for a few hairs towards the base of the persistent calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subellipsoid, 1-2, 9 × 4 × 3 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Fruiting calyx patelliform, 3 mm. long, irregularly 3-lobed, lobes broadly triangular to semicircular.
Figures
Fig. 2/1.
Habitat
Thicket and forest on coral rag, also forest patches on black cotton soil and riverine and lakeside forest; 0-250 m.
Distribution
Senegal to Angola, Central Africa Republic, Zaire, Sudan, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and also India, Sri Lanka to Australia and to Hawaii K7 T3 T8

[FWTA]

Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Forest shrub or small under-storey tree 5-45 ft. high with spreading and arching branches
Morphology General Bark
Bark dark grey, slash black outside, red inside, sapwood white or pale straw-coloured
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots densely rusty pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white.

[FZ]

Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrub or small tree up to 18 m. high.
Morphology General Buds
Bud–scales absent or minute and fugaceous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subcoriaceous, drying pale brown; lamina 3·5 x 1·8–8 x 3·5 cm., broadly elliptic to lanceolate–elliptic, apex usually shortly acuminate or sub–acuminate, sometimes obtuse or rounded, lower surface glabrous except for a few setulose hairs, chiefly on the midrib and margin; secondary nerves in about 5–9 pairs, together with the tertiary nerves and veins forming an indistinct reticulum.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers subsessile in 1–3(4)–flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 0·1–0·3 cm. long, densely setulose. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided.
sex Male
Male flowers subsessile in 1–3(4)–flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 0·1–0·3 cm. long, densely setulose. Calyx 0·3 cm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; lobes 3, ± deltate, very variable in shape and size. Stamens 8–14, in pairs; filaments 0·05–0·1 cm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 0·1–0·15 cm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs. Pistillode represented by a tuft of hairs. Corolla 0·5 cm. long, lobed to just below the middle, lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid–petaline lines, otherwise glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 0·3 cm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; lobes 3, ± deltate, very variable in shape and size.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 0·5 cm. long, lobed to just below the middle, lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid–petaline lines, otherwise glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–14, in pairs; filaments 0·05–0·1 cm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 0·1–0·15 cm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistillodes
Pistillode represented by a tuft of hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Staminodes
Staminodes absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 0·3 x 0 .25 cm., conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
sex Female
Ovary 0·3 x 0 .25 cm., conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided. Staminodes absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–2, 0 9 x 0·4 x 0·3 cm., sub–ellipsoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruiting calyx patelliform, 0·3 cm. long, irregularly 3–lobed, lobes broadly deltate to hemi–orbicular. Fruit c. 1–3 x 0–9 cm., broadly ellipsoid, glabrous except for a few strigulose hairs towards the base of the persistent style.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n = 30.

Native to:

Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nigeria, Philippines, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 1, 2011 Poilane [17824], Cambodia K000639744
Jun 1, 2011 Soejarto [10852], Laos K000639753
Jun 1, 2010 Middleton, D. et al. [1116], Thailand K000639289
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [15610], Papua New Guinea K000639150
Jan 1, 2010 Bau [LAE 82861], Papua New Guinea K000639151
Jan 1, 2010 Bau [LAE 82769], Papua New Guinea K000639149
Jan 1, 2010 Puradyatmika [10404], Papua New Guinea K000272175
Jan 1, 2010 Sands [1128], Papua New Guinea K000639148
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [16305], Papua New Guinea K000639153
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi [16224], Papua New Guinea K000639154
Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi, W. et al [15387], Papua New Guinea K000639152
May 1, 2006 Sidiyasa, K. et al. [3442], Kalimantan K000639211
May 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11937], Cameroon K000339694
Mar 1, 2006 Tadjouteu, F. [570], Cameroon K000339048
Mar 1, 1955 Dalziel, J.M. [413], Nigeria K000350652 syntype
Mar 1, 1955 Lely, H.V. [229], Nigeria K000350653 syntype
Mar 1, 1955 Don [s.n.], Congo, DRC K000350677
Faulkner, H. [2151], Tanzania 55939.000
Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India Diospyros nigrescens K000792382
Kajewski, S.F. [932], Vanuatu Diospyros ferrea f. subelliptica K000792741 Unknown type material
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4145], Myanmar Maba buxifolia K001038241
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038240
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038242
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038243
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038239

First published in Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 7: 162 (1933)

Accepted by

  • Callimander, M.W. & al. (eds.) (2013). Notes on the flora of Madagascar. 30-34 Candollea 68: 301-320.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1996). Flora of China 15: 1-387. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Not accepted by

  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea. [Cited as Diospyros vera.]
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141. [Cited as Diospyros vera.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sultana, M., Rahman, M.O., Begum, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2010). Diospyros albiflora Alston (Ebenaceae): A new Angiospermic record for Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Botany 39: 249-251.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bakh. in Gard. Bull., Singapore 7: 162 (1933).
  • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin botanique National de Belgique 48: 273, fig. 5 & 6 (1978) (full synonymy)
  • F. White in Distr. Pl. Afr. 14, carte 455 (1978).
  • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 252, t. 55A (1983)
  • F. White in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 11 (1963).
  • F. White in Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Ebenaceae: 8, t. 1A-G (1987).
  • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert & Thonning: 53 (1976).
  • Letouzey & F. White in Fl. Cameroun 11 & Fl. Gabon 18: 69, t. 16/13-22 (1970).
  • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 31 (1980).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/