Genus:
Bidens L.

Bidens pilosa L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food and for food.

[FWTA]

Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
An erect annual herb
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Yellow disk-florets and white ray-florets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits strongly adherent
Note
A common weed of disturbed ground.

[FTEA]

Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect, 0.1–1.5 m high; stem much branched or sometimes hardly branched, pale green or sometimes reddish, 4-angled, sparsely pubescent to glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3–5-lobed or occasionally simple in upper or lowermost part of stem, up to 15(–20) cm long, segments ovate to ovate-lanceolate, margins serrate or crenate-serrate, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, terminal segment 5–10 cm long, 2.5–5 cm wide, lateral segments 2–5 cm long, 1–2 cm wide and asymmetric, often lobed or bilobed; petiole to 70 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula terminal and solitary or few together; peduncle to 16 cm long; outer phyllaries 7–10, 3–4 mm long, reflexed at anthesis, inner phyllaries 5–8, yellow-green to pale brown, 3–4.5 mm long with yellow scarious margins, glabrous but for the apex; receptacle club-shaped in fruit; paleae light brown, striate, 3–5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Ray florets white or cream, sometimes absent, neuter or with pistillodes or staminodes, 4–8, rays (when fully developed) 7–15x3–4.5 mm, tube 0.5–0.8 mm long; disc florets yellow or yellow-orange, ± 4 mm long, pubescent at base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes black, 4–6-ribbed, linear-tetragonal, 4–12 mm long, strigose or verrucose; aristae 2–3(–4), 2–4 mm long, retrorsely barbed.
Figures
Fig. 172/12–13 (page 805).
Habitat
common weed of cultivation and ruderal sites, often on alluvial sites, also in forest margins and grassland, in swamps and along streams; may be locally common; 0–60 and 750–2500 m
Distribution
pan-tropical and -sub-tropical, also extending into some temperate areas K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 0 - 3100 m.
Vernacular
Taimquala.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–3100 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Abujua (Cubeo), Cadillo, Masequía, Pacunga, Papunga

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb, 0.2–0.75 m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole 1–3 cm long; blade pinnately 3–5-lobed, occasionally upper and lower leaves simple, segments ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1-10 x 2-5 cm, thinly hairy or glabrous, serrate or crenate-serrate, the terminal segment often the longest and widest
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Capitula 5–12 x 5–7 mm at anthesis, up to 12 mm high in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Phyllaries
Outer phyllaries green, 7–10, narrowly spathulate, 3–4 x 0.5–0.8 mm Inner phyllaries yellowish-green with yellow scarious margins, 5–8, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 3–4.5 x 1–1.5 mm
Ray
Ray florets white, 4–8 or sometimes absent, usually neuter or with pistillodes or staminodes, with 5–7 orange striations, 7–15 x 3–4.5 mm, deeply 3-cleft at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk florets with corolla 3–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes black, 4–12 x 0.8–1 mm, tetragonal, strigose or verrucose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Pappus
Pappus aristae 2–4, 2–4 mm long, backwardly barbed.
Distribution
N1; S1, 3 pantropical weed.
Ecology
Altitude range 100–1580 m.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
amapola silvestre, amorseco, cacho de cabra, cadillo, cadillo de huerta, carapacunga, caripacunga, chipa, chipaca, chipaco, mandigüiche, masequía, masiquía, masiquiara, pacunga, papunga, pegapega, picuyo, tapunga, venturosa

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3100 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPB]
Use Animal Food Bees
Bees visit the plants (Giraldo et al. 2011).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Used in the treatment of liver disorders (Giraldo et al. 2011).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Leaves - Used in baths (Cadena-González 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Algeria, Angola, Assam, Azores, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, Gabon, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, West Himalaya, Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Beggar sticks, Black fellows, Blackjack, Blanket-stabbers, Bur marigold, Cobbler's pegs, Spanish needles, Sweethearts
Spanish
Amargón, corro, tabera, chipaca, masequia, cadillo de huerta, papunga, pecunga, amapola silvestre, cadillo, cadillo de perro, chipaca, masiquia, pacunga.

Bidens pilosa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2010 Saw [48208], Peninsular Malaysia K000705402 No
Jan 1, 2010 Yao [67902], Peninsular Malaysia K0007-5401 No
Jan 1, 2010 Yao [67902], Peninsular Malaysia K000705401 No
Jan 1, 2010 Kiew et al. [FRI65549], Malaysia K000662253 No
Mar 1, 2009 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [6769], Surinam K000373272 No
Jan 1, 2009 Radifah [FRI 51604], Peninsular Malaysia K000575517 No
Jan 1, 2009 Ezrom, P. [253], Tanzania K000614940 No
Jan 1, 2008 Klaasens [EK788], Namibia K000450177 No
Jan 1, 2004 Ghogue, J.-P. [1066], Cameroon K000746651 No
Aug 1, 2001 Munyenyembe, P. [724], Cameroon K000746893 No
Aug 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [3473], Cameroon K000746891 No
Aug 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [2], Cameroon K000746892 No
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9036], Cameroon K000108640 No
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9455], Cameroon K000108636 No
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1563], Cameroon K000108639 No
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1337], Cameroon K000108638 No
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [5655], Cameroon K000108637 No
Aug 1, 1998 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3533], Bahia K000053620 Yes
Aug 1, 1998 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3533], Bahia K000053621 Yes
Nov 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD4115], Bahia K000053623 Yes
Oct 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3793], Bahia K000053622 Yes
Jul 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3341], Bahia K000053630 Yes
Oct 1, 1993 Guedes, M.L. [20], Bahia K000053632 Yes
Mar 1, 1993 Carvalho, A.M. [3871], Bahia K000053631 Yes
Mar 1, 1993 Hind, D.J.N. [H50015], Bahia K000053628 Yes
Mar 1, 1993 Hind, D.J.N. [H50007], Bahia K000053627 Yes
Mar 1, 1993 Hind, D.J.N. [H50015], Bahia K000053629 Yes
Jan 1, 1992 Carvalho, A.M. [3871], Bahia K000053624 Yes
Bally, P.R.O. [5573], Kenya 4733.000 No
Harley, R.M. [21367], Bahia K000053625 Yes
Harley, R.M. [19229], Bahia K000053633 Yes
Hooker, J.D. [201], Cape Verde K001041555 Yes
Boog [s.n.], Brazil K001103560 Yes
Boog [s.n.], Brazil K001103561 Yes
Souza, V.C. [32708], Brazil K001103565 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [6863], Brazil K001103563 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Portugal K001103660 Yes
Boog [s.n.], Brazil K001103540 Yes
Douglas, D. [56], California K001065519 syntype Yes
Douglas, D. [56], California K001065520 syntype Yes
Miguel, G. [27], Brazil K001103568 Yes
Eiten, G. [1547], Brazil K001103549 Yes
Way, M.J. [SWM/2423], Brazil K001031890 Yes
Poiteur, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001103545 Yes
Gardner, G. [501], Brazil K000895385 Yes
Franco, G.A.D.C. [128], Brazil K001103570 Yes
Maas, P.J.M. [332], Brazil K001103562 Yes
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001103571 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001103542 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21885], Bahia K000053626 Yes
Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001103564 Yes
Strang, H.E. [447], Brazil K001103546 Yes
Smith, D. [375], Brazil K001103567 Yes
Dusén, P. [6519], Brazil K001103541 Yes
Castellanos, A. [23211], Brazil K001103569 Yes
Harris [9237], Brazil K001103566 Yes
Gardner, G. [501], Brazil K000895386 Yes
Philcox, D. [3920], Brazil K001103544 Yes
Philcox, D. [4202], Brazil K001103543 Yes
Way, M.J. [SWM/2423], Brazil K001031889 Yes
Sallu, A.N. [551], Tanzania K000612964 No
Ratter, J.A. [2754], Brazil K001103547 Yes
Dusén, P. [14197], Brazil K001103572 Yes
Eiten, G. [1547], Brazil K001103548 Yes
Ecuador K001479460 Yes
Ecuador K001479461 Yes
Ecuador K001479462 Yes
Ecuador K001479463 Yes
Ecuador K001479464 Yes
Ecuador K001479465 Yes
Ecuador K001479466 Yes
Ecuador K001479467 Yes
Ecuador K001479468 Yes
Ecuador K001479469 Yes
Ecuador K001479470 Yes
Ecuador K001479471 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479472 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479473 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479474 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479475 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479476 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001479477 Yes
Panama K001479478 Yes
Peru K001479480 Yes
Peru K001479481 Yes
Peru K001479482 Yes
Peru K001479483 Yes
Peru K001479484 Yes
Peru K001479485 Yes
Peru K001479486 Yes
Peru K001479487 Yes
Peru K001479488 Yes
Peru K001479489 Yes
Peru K001479490 Yes
Peru K001479491 Yes
Peru K001479492 Yes
Peru K001479493 Yes
Peru K001479503 Yes
Peru K001479504 Yes
Peru K001479505 Yes
Venezuela K001479517 Yes
Venezuela K001479518 Yes
Venezuela K001479519 Yes
Venezuela K001479520 Yes
Venezuela K001479521 Yes
Venezuela K001479522 Yes
Venezuela K001479523 Yes
Chile K001479673 Yes
Chile K001479674 Yes
Chile K001479675 Yes
Chile K001479676 Yes
Chile K001479677 Yes
Chile K001479678 Yes
Chile K001479679 Yes
Chile K001479680 Yes
Argentina K001479690 Yes
Argentina K001479691 Yes
Argentina K001479692 Yes
Argentina K001479693 Yes
Argentina K001479694 Yes
Argentina K001479695 Yes
Argentina K001479696 Yes
Uruguay K001479697 Yes
Uruguay K001479698 Yes
Uruguay K001479699 Yes
Uruguay K001479700 Yes
Argentina K001479730 Yes
Colombia K001482588 Yes
Colombia K001482589 Yes
Colombia K001482590 Yes
Colombia K001482591 Yes
Colombia K001482592 Yes
Colombia K001482593 Yes
Colombia K001482594 Yes
Colombia K001482595 Yes
Colombia K001482596 Yes
Colombia K001482597 Yes
Colombia K001482598 Yes
Colombia K001482599 Yes
Colombia K001482601 Yes
Colombia K001482602 Yes
Colombia K001482603 Yes
Colombia K001482604 Yes
Cuming [1041], Peru Bidens abadiae K000497417 Unknown type material Yes
Cuming [1041], Peru Bidens abadiae K000497416 Unknown type material Yes
Dec 1, 2008 Bidens odorata K000373098 isotype Yes
Dec 1, 2008 Mexico Bidens odorata K000373097 isotype Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479497 Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479498 Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479499 Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479500 Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479501 Yes
Peru Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479502 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479681 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479682 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479683 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479684 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479685 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479686 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479687 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479688 Yes
Chile Bidens pilosa f. alausensis K001479689 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 832 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Beentje, H.J. (2021). Flore du Gabon 56: 1-148. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Ghafoor, A. & al. (2021). Flora of Pakistan 224: 1-310. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Kiew, R. & al. (eds.) (2021). Malayan Forest Records 49: 1-403.
  • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India. Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 11, 27, 48
  • Chev. Bot. 373
  • F.T.A. 3: 392
  • Schnell in Ic. Pl. Afr. I.F.A.N. 5: t. 99.
  • Sherff in Publ. Field Mus. 16: 412, t. 99 & 102 (1937)
  • Sp. Pl. 832 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
  • Giraldo, C., Rodríguez, A., Chamorro, F. J., Obregon, D., Montoya, P., Ramirez, N., . . . Nates-Parra, G. (2011). Guía ilustrada de polen y plantas nativas visitadas por abejas: Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Santander, Sucre, Atlántico y Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://www.jstor.org/stable/26958715. epublication.
  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Beentje, H.J. (2021). Flore du Gabon 56: 1-148. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by Mesfin Tadesse [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Mesfin Tadesse in Kew Bull. 48: 437–516 (1993).
  • Mesfin Tadesse in Symb. Bot. Upsal. 24: 1–138 (1984)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 466 (1974).
  • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 217, t. 89 (1994).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: pl. 90 (1987).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg.) p. 1139 excl. (1967).
  • D.J.N. Hind in Fl. Masc. 109: 195 (1993).
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 174, fig. 113 (1962).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 11 (1956).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 1, 2: 832 (1753).
  • Lisowski, Asterac. Fl. Afr. Centr. 1: 136, fig. 32 (1991).
  • Maquet in Fl. Rwanda 3: 634, fig. 195/3 (1985).
  • Mesfin in Kew Bulletin 48: 500 (1993).
  • Mesfin in Symb. Bot. Upsal. 24: 122, fig. 61, fig. 58 (1984).
  • Oliv. & Hiern, Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 392 (1877).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 146 (1949).
  • Sherff in Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 16: 412, fig. 99/b, 102/1–b, e–j (1937).
  • Wild in Kirkia 6: 24, excl. (1967).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. (2017). Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • Garrido, A.M., Cámara-Leret, R., Madriñán, S. (2014). Nombres y usos de las plantas identificadas por los indígenas cubeo de Colombia (Tesis de pregrado). Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Identificación de las plantas útiles como Productos Forestales No Maderables del Bosque seco-Tropical en tres ventanas del Caribe colombiano. 1386 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Sarmiento Bernal, C. (Proveedor del metadatos). Espitia Palenci, L. (Autor), Gallego, B. (Punto de contacto), Aguilar Cano, J. (Curador), Mendoza, H. (Curador). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=rrbb_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
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  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/