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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Lantana camara

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect or spreading much-branched, square-stemmed shrub
Morphology General Prickles
Usually with short prickles (var. aculeata (Linn.) Moldenke)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Showy flowers in convex heads 1-2 in. across.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2800 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb, shrub or creeper.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Vernacular
Mabizou, bwa wa tau.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type a cultivated specimen, Linnaean Herbarium no. 783/4 (LINN, lectotype).
Morphology General
Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening. Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening.
Ecology
In dense thickets by roadsides, in forest clearings, pine plantations and old cultivations, occasional in deciduous woodlands and grassland; 0–2000 m.
Note
In the Flora Zambesiaca area a range of forms based on corolla colour may be recognized, and the following corolla colour variations occur: yellow and orange (in the same head), yellow-orange fading to red, yellow and red, orange and pink, yellow in the outer whorls and pink in the inner, white suffused with pale or mauve-pink towards edges and with an orange-yellow throat, all bright orange, all yellow, all pink with yellow throat, all mauve, all white.
Distribution
District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT N, BOT W, BOT C, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. In some parts it forms widespread uncontrollable thickets, and for this reason has been declared a noxious weed in Zambia and Zimbabwe.  Certain cultivars are sterile and innocuous. Native of tropical and subtropical America, and introduced in the tropics where it is cultivated as a garden ornamental and hedge plant.  It is now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi Mozambique
Morphology General Habit
Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic.
Morphology Stem
Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches. Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender. Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands. Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose. Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin. Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded. Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto, trepadora
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub, up to 2 m or more tall, mostly ± armed with recurved prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; blades ovate to ovate-oblong, 2–12 x 2–7 cm, acute at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, closely crenate-serrate, scabrid, with impressed venation above; petiole 7–20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary ± flat heads 2–3(–5) cm in diam., the axis 0.5–1 cm long; peduncle 1.5–10 cm long; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–8(–13) x 1–1.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla red, purple, pink, orange, yellow or white; tube 8–13 mm long, densely puberulous outside; limb 4–9 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes purple or black, 3–5(–7) mm in diam.
Distribution
N1; S2 probably originally from the West Indies, now widespread in all tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1000 m.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Bwa wa tau, Carraquillo, Cinco negritos, Gurupacha, Mabizou, Mille fleurs, Red sage, Sanguinaria, Siete negritos, Venturosa cariaquita

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Mostly a spreading, rather unpleasantly aromatic shrub 0.35–5 m. tall but can be scandent to 12 m. or even in cultivation over a long period become a tree to 8 m. with a bole 10–12 cm. diameter; stems ± square, almost completely unarmed to slightly or copiously and viciously covered with recurved prickles.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, ovate to ovate-oblong, 2–12 cm. long, 2–7 cm. wide, mostly fairly small, acute at apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate or rarely subcordate at base, scabrid with coarse tubercule-based hairs and rugose with impressed venation above, ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on raised venation, closely crenate-serrate; petioles 0.7–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary ± flat heads 2–3(–5) cm. diameter, the axis 0.5–1 cm. long; peduncles 1.5–10 cm. long; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–8(–13) mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx very thin, ± 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla very variously coloured, red, purple, pink with yellow centre, salmon, orange, pure yellow, white, etc., sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer, e.g. yellow and red; tube 0.8–1.3 cm. long, densely puberulous outside; limb 4–9 mm. wide, the lobes oblong to rounded, up to 5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes fleshy, purple or black, 3–5(–7) mm. diameter (dry); pyrene essentially ovoid, 6 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, laterally somewhat like the head of a bird with a narrower and a wider portion, the latter more rugose and crenate where the two join.
Habitat
Forming dense thickets, by roadsides, in forest clearings, old cultivations, etc.; 0–2040 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U1 U4 Z probably originally native of the W. Indies, now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Caroline Is., Cook Is., Fiji, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Hawaii, India, Italy, Kenya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Nauru, Niue, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Tuamotu, Zaïre

English
Red sage
French
Mille fleurs.
Spanish
Sanguinaria, cinco negritos, venturosa cariaquita, gurupacha, carraquillo, siete negritos.

Lantana camara L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 27, 2009 Vigo [15246], Peru K000248811
Oct 27, 2009 Graham [797], Peru K000248812
Sep 30, 2009 Amith [1194], Mexico K000248756
Sep 30, 2009 Amith [1194], Mexico K000248757
Sep 25, 2009 Mendonca [3637], Brazil K000248709
Sep 25, 2009 Figueiredo [560], Brazil K000248710
Sep 25, 2009 Figueiredo [568], Brazil K000248711
Sep 25, 2009 Jimenez [773], Bolivia K000248716
Sep 25, 2009 Lliully [483], Bolivia K000248728
Sep 25, 2009 Linneo [862], Bolivia K000248729
Sep 25, 2009 Fuentes [10640], Bolivia K000248730
Sep 25, 2009 Gomes [40], Brazil K000248733
Sep 25, 2009 Tscha [75], Brazil K000248734
Sep 25, 2009 Hora [77], Brazil K000248735
Sep 25, 2009 Oliveira [732], Brazil K000248746
Jan 1, 2009 Friedberg [M15], Madagascar K000248500
Mar 12, 2008 Harley [54892], Brazil K000479804
Jan 1, 2008 Campos, A. [RT-00039], El Salvador K000509527
Jan 1, 2008 Candelario, M. [RL-00032], El Salvador K000509528
Jan 1, 2008 Jinaun [49], Borneo K000509575
Jan 1, 2008 Bavazzano [60], Tanzania K000509595
Sep 1, 1999 de Carvalho, A.M. [2663], Bahia K000014328
Sep 1, 1999 de Carvalho, A.M. [3683], Bahia K000014326
Jun 1, 1999 Hatschbach, G. [67577], Bahia K000012225
Jan 1, 1999 Andrade, K. [74], Pernambuco K000012171
Jan 1, 1999 Campelo, M.J. [61], Pernambuco K000012177
Jan 1, 1999 Figueiredo, L.S. [38], Pernambuco K000012180
Jan 1, 1998 Ganev, W. [403], Bahia K000013998
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [1384], Alagoas K000013458
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [1384], Brazil K000013441
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [2287], Brazil K000013459
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [2287], Brazil K000013438
Jan 1, 1998 Gouveia, E.P. [6583], Bahia K000013457
Jan 1, 1998 Hatschbach, G. [50848], Bahia K000013455
Jan 1, 1998 Hind, D.J.N. [H50278], Bahia K000012011
Jan 1, 1998 Salzmann [0], Bahia K000013456
Jan 1, 1998 Sellow [0], Bahia K000013517
Jan 1, 1998 Sellow [0], Bahia K000013515
Jan 1, 1998 Sellow [637], Bahia K000013518
Jan 1, 1998 Sellow [371], Bahia K000013516
Jan 1, 1998 Irwin, H.S. [14949], Brazil K000837890
Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [182], Brazil K000837884
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [786], Brazil K000837886
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [1384], Brazil K000837889
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [1732], Brazil K000837887
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000837885
Jan 1, 1997 Agra, M.F. [1184], Brazil K000013446
Jan 1, 1997 Ferraz, E. [264], Pernambuco K000013452
Jan 1, 1997 Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M491], Brazil K000013450
Jan 1, 1997 Mattos Silva, L.A. [938], Bahia K000013448
Jan 1, 1997 Moura, O.T. [17608], Brazil K000013449
Jan 1, 1997 Pickersgill, B. [RU72461], Brazil K000013443
Jan 1, 1997 Preston, T.A. [1872], Pernambuco K000013440
Jan 1, 1997 Rodrigues, E.H. [9], Pernambuco K000013444
Jan 1, 1997 Salimena-Pires, F.R. [PCD2303], Bahia K000013962
Jan 1, 1997 Silva, D.C. [82], Pernambuco K000013451
Jan 1, 1997 Tscha, M. [185], Pernambuco K000013445
Jan 1, 1997 Fritz Muller [144], Brazil K000837891
Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10551], Brazil K000837883
Dec 1, 1996 Yoshida Arns, K.N. [100], Pernambuco K000013434
Jan 1, 1996 Souza, V.C. [5397], Bahia K000013433
Jan 1, 1995 Henrique, V.V. [8], Pernambuco K000013430
Jan 1, 1995 Tscha, M. [75], Pernambuco K000013431
Jan 1, 1992 Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M491], Brazil K000013442
Jan 1, 1990 Andrade, K. [344], Pernambuco K000013432
Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [27705], Bahia K000013436
Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [27371], Bahia K000013435
Jan 1, 1990 Noblick, L.R. [4346], Bahia K000013447
Jan 1, 1990 Santos, E.B. [97], Bahia K000013439
Jan 1, 1984 Bastos, B.C. [330], Bahia K000013437
Jan 1, 1984 Bastos, B.C. [96], Bahia K000013453
Jan 1, 1975 Luetzelburg, P.V. [26850], Brazil K000837876
Harley, R.M. [21617], Bahia K000013454
Stirton, C.H. [10554], South Africa 50271.000
Stirton, C.H. [10583], South Africa 50275.000
Stirton, C.H. [10631], South Africa 50279.000
Stirton, C.H. [10588], South Africa 50282.000
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000837875
Traill, J.W.H. [662], Brazil K000837878
Welwitsch [5715], Angola K001009872
Welwitsch [5650], Angola K001009871
Burchell [902], Brazil K000837888
Welwitsch [5765], Angola K001009733
Dusén, P. [8735], Brazil K000837880
Soares, A. [243], Brazil K000837877
Regnell, A.F. [336], Brazil K000837882
Reverchon, E. [s.n.], Spain K000759910
Burchell [9229], Brazil K000837881
Mueller, F. [377], Brazil K000837879

First published in Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
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  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
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  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
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  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
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  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2006). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): I. Correct application of Lantana camara and associated names Sida 22: 381-421.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2012). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic revision Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6: 403-441.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 502.
  • F.T.A. 5: 275
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 627 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. Chevalier, Expl. Bot. Afr. Occ. Fr. 1 : 502 (1920).
  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 598 (1847).
  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 600 (1847).
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  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 57 (1973).
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  • Blumea 5 : 69 (1942).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 131 (1989), in adnot.
  • Bothalia 10 , 3: 496 (1971).
  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 7 : 38 (1920).
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 , 3a: 151 (1897).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb., II] 12 : 166 (1954).
  • F.C. 5 , 1: 191 (1901).
  • F.T.A. 5 : 275 (1900).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 39 (1992).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 435 (1963).
  • Fl. Cuba 4 : 287, fig. 123B (1957)*.
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1 , 4: 827 (1900).
  • Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 269 (1931).
  • J. Bot. 68 , Suppl. 2 (Gamopet.): 139 (1930).
  • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 299 (1972).
  • Leon & Alain, Fl. Cuba 4 : 287 (1957).
  • Lilloa 4 : 288 (1939)
  • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 976 (2002).
  • Martineau, Rhodesia Wild Fl.: 65 (1953).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 122: 7 (1967).
  • Moldenke, Résumé Verbenaceae: 458 (Taxon. Index, 1959).
  • Myre, Algumas Plantas nocivas [Inst. Inv. Cient. Mocambique]: 9, fig. 1–3 (1964).
  • Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2 : 140 (1806).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 229 (1983).
  • Résumé Verbenaceae: 458 (Taxon. Index, 1959)
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 434 (1909).
  • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 60 (1845).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962) excl. spec. White 1807 pro parte.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Gonçales Salimenas, F.R. & al. (2016). Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 47: 1-157. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1969). List of vascular flora of Rangiroa Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 33-44.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2012). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic revision Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6: 403-441.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Somalia

  • Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61: 125–214 (1989).
  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 275 (1900).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 398, t. 704 (1987).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. Kenya: 109, 31/197 (1982).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 586 (1961).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 368 (1962).
  • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 223, fig. 35/5 (1980).
  • Ivens, E. Afr. Weeds: 65 (1967).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 639 (1949).
  • Jafri & Ghafour in Fl. W. Pakistan 77: 9 (1974).
  • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 117, 239 (1957).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753).
  • Meikle in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 435 (1963).
  • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 220 (1983) (extensive bibliography, synonymy and uses).
  • Nash & Nee, Fl. Veracruz 41: 70 (1984) (extensive synonymy).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 326 (1949).
  • Sanders in Syst. Bot. 12(1): 44–60, fig. 9 (1987).
  • Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11: 598 (1847).
  • Sinha & Sharma in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 95: 621–633 (1984) (extensive biological references).
  • Spies & Stirton in Bothalia 14: 101–111 (1982).
  • Spies in S. Afr. Journ. Bot. 3: 231–250 (1984) (cytotaxonomy).
  • Townsend, Fl. Iraq 4: 656 (1980).
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 172 (1969).

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/