Agrostis L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 61 (1753), nom. cons.
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Subarctic & Temp. to Tropical Mountains.

Descriptions

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets pedicelled, 1-flowered, hermaphrodite, relatively small, laterally compressed, awned or awnless, narrowly lanceolate to oblong, often gaping; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, sometimes produced beyond the floret into a slender awn-like bristle of varying length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2, persistent, subequal, 1- (rarely 3-) nerved, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, rarely oblong, apex acute or acuminate, awnless, usually membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemma 3-5-nerved, broadly oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic when expanded, thinly membranous or hyaline, apex usually truncate sometimes slightly emarginate, awnless or dorsally awned or rarely with the apex awned between 2 short lobes (in this case the awn straight), glabrous or dorsally pilose, the lateral nerves sometimes excurrent into short mucros; callus short, obtuse, glabrous or bearded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Palea as long as but usually shorter than the lemma, sometimes reduced to a small scale or completely absent, faintly 2-nerved, hyaline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, usually lanceolate, hyaline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous; styles 2, rather short, with the stigmas laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis free, oblong or elliptic-oblong in outline, longitudinally grooved; embryo short, not longer than 1/4 the length of the caryopsis; hilum basal, punctiform or linear to narrowly oblong.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial grasses.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule a membrane, sometimes lacerate, scarious to hyaline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a many-flowered panicle, usually much divided, effuse or contracted, seldom spike-like.
[FZ]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (66), or perennial (183). Rhizomes absent (205), or short (21), or elongated (22). Stolons absent (233), or present (13). Culms erect (138/184), or geniculately ascending (91/184), or decumbent (22/184), or prostrate (1/184); slender (23/30), or weak (7/30); 1-37.94-150 cm long; without nodal roots (5/14), or rooting from lower nodes (14/14). Culm-internodes terete (5/6), or elliptical in section (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (50/53), or sparse (6/53), or ample (1/53). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (239), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (1). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (239), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (239), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades aciculate (4), or filiform (39), or linear (200), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (238), or coriaceous (2); stiff (14), or firm (216), or flaccid (10).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle (239), or a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); not deciduous as a whole (221), or deciduous as a whole (19); exserted (227), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (16). Peduncle persistent (224), or fracturing (16). Panicle open (176/239), or contracted (57/239), or spiciform (19/239), or capitate (1/239). Primary panicle branches not whorled (176/239), or whorled at lower nodes (16/239), or whorled at most nodes (48/239). Spikelets appressed (4/7), or ascending (1/7), or spreading (2/7); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (30/50), or linear (1/50), or clavate (19/50); tip rectangular (2/19), or widened (17/19).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (192/236), or with a barren rhachilla extension (58/236), or with diminished florets at the apex (1/236). Spikelets linear (1/239), or lanceolate (90/239), or elliptic (142/239), or oblong (27/239), or cuneate (3/239); laterally compressed; 0.6-2.986-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/4); base obtuse (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (63/198), or sparsely hairy (15/198), or pubescent (97/198), or pilose (26/198), or bearded (8/198).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (192/236), or with a barren rhachilla extension (58/236), or with diminished florets at the apex (1/236). Spikelets linear (1/239), or lanceolate (90/239), or elliptic (142/239), or oblong (27/239), or cuneate (3/239); laterally compressed; 0.6-2.986-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/4); base obtuse (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (63/198), or sparsely hairy (15/198), or pubescent (97/198), or pilose (26/198), or bearded (8/198).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (239), or deciduous (1); shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets (14), or exceeding apex of florets (229); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or firmer than fertile lemma (239); parallel to lemmas (65), or gaping (176). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (216), or elliptic (16), or oblong (11), or ovate (7); 0.5-1.022-1.5 length of upper glume; membranous (237), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or cartilaginous (1); without keels (2/239), or 1-keeled (237/239); 1 -veined (226/235), or 2 -veined (5/235), or 3 -veined (13/235). Lower glume lateral veins absent (225), or obscure (5), or distinct (14). Lower glume surface smooth (204), or asperulous (37), or scabrous (14); glabrous (238), or puberulous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex entire (239), or erose (1); truncate (1), or obtuse (7), or acute (185), or acuminate (60), or caudate (1); muticous (236), or mucronate (4), or awned (4). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (217), or elliptic (16), or oblong (12), or ovate (6); 0.8-1.415-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (237), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (226), or hyaline margins (14); without keels (2/239), or 1-keeled (237/239); 1 -veined (215/234), or 2 -veined (9/234), or 3 -veined (28/234). Upper glume surface smooth (203), or asperulous (34), or scabrous (17), or papillose (1); glabrous (239), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (239), or erose (1); truncate (1/239), or obtuse (6/239), or acute (186/239), or acuminate (61/239), or caudate (1/239); muticous (235), or mucronate (5), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (21), or elliptic (91), or oblong (105), or ovate (51); dorsally compressed (1/1); hyaline (223), or membranous (9), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (6); without keel; 3 -veined (14/230), or 4 -veined (12/230), or 5 -veined (224/230). Lemma midvein extending to apex (1/1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (25/30), or distinct (1/30), or prominent (5/30); excurrent (59/119), or extending close to apex (65/119). Lemma surface smooth (218), or asperulous (8), or scaberulous (18), or scabrous (1); glabrous (188), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (24), or pilose (31), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (238), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (107), or erose (64), or dentate (72), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (16/72), or 3 -fid (2/72), or 4 -fid (55/72), or 5 -fid (3/72); incised 0.15-0.3-0.5 of lemma length; emarginate (2/195), or truncate (169/195), or obtuse (29/195), or acute (6/195); muticous (105), or mucronate (14), or awned (164); 1 -awned (137/146), or 2 -awned (1/146), or 3 -awned (5/146), or 5 -awned (3/146). Principal lemma awn apical (4/173), or subapical (15/173), or dorsal (154/173); straight (74/173), or curved (12/173), or flexuous (1/173), or geniculate (102/173). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (1/1). Palea present (180), or absent or minute (66); 0-0.5529-1 length of lemma; hyaline (173/180), or membranous (7/180); 0 -veined (11/77), or 1 -veined (2/77), or 2 -veined (68/77); without keels (2/180), or 2-keeled (179/180). Palea keels smooth (177/179), or scaberulous (1/179), or scabrous (1/179). Palea apex entire (3/8), or erose (1/8), or dentate (6/8); muticous (174/180), or with excurrent keel veins (6/180). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (1/1); barren (1/1); lanceolate (1/1). Apical sterile lemmas awned (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent (1/205), or 2 (204/205); membranous (203/203); acute (8/8). Anthers 1 (1/231), or 3 (230/231). Stigmas 2 (20/20). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (215/215); lanceolate (1/27), or fusiform (2/27), or ellipsoid (14/27), or oblong (6/27), or ovoid (5/27), or obovoid (1/27); isodiametric (5/6), or dorsally compressed (1/6); biconvex (5/5); smooth (5/5); apex unappendaged (8/8). Embryo 0.2-0.2305-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/174), or elliptic (4/174), or linear (168/174); 0.9 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (27), or Africa (53), or Temperate Asia (47), or Tropical Asia (27), or Australasia (54), or Pacific (7), or North America (39), or South America (62), or Antarctica (13).
[GB]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear to subulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle usually much divided, rarely spike-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets linear-lanceolate to oblong, small, often gaping and with the rhachilla prolonged beyond the floret; glumes persistent (rarely the spikelet falling entire), subequal, mostly lanceolate and acute to acuminate, membranous, often shining, 1(–3)-nerved; lemmas oblong to elliptic, shorter than the glumes, truncate or denticulate, thin, (3–)5-nerved with the nerves often excurrent into mucros, awnless or awned from the back; callus small, obtuse, glabrous or pubescent (rarely bearded); palea usually shorter than the lemma, sometimes obsolete
Distribution
Species 150–200; mainly in temperate and cold regions, especially in the northern hemisphere.
[FTEA]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 4-20 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute; awned. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Distribution
Europe, or Africa.
[GB]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0