Calanthe R.Br.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific, Mexico to Colombia, Caribbean.

[FTEA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Large or medium-sized terrestrial or rarely epiphytic herbs
Vegetative Multiplication Pseudobulbs
Pseudobulbs ovoid, conical or cylindrical, leafy and often obscure, 1–several-noded
Morphology Leaves
Leaves plicate, petiolate, ± jointed, deciduous or persistent, often very large
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences basal, erect, racemose, laxly to densely few–many-flowered, ± pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often showy and large
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals subsimilar
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals mostly smaller
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip mostly 3-lobed, rarely entire, fused at base to column, spurred at base; callus often verrucose or cristate at base of lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column short, fleshy; pollinia 8, clavate; viscidium elliptic or lanceolate; rostellum bifid.

[FZ]

Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

Morphology General Habit
Large or medium-sized terrestrial herb; pseudobulbs leafy and often obscure, with 1 to several nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves deciduous or persistent, petiolate, plicate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence erect, racemose, few to many-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually large and showy; tepals spreading; lip fused to the column at base, usually 3-lobed, spurred, often with a warty callus at the base.

[FZ]

Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial (rarely epiphytic) herb with fibrous roots, sometimes with pseudobulbs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves arising from a pseudobulb or spaced along the stem, petiolate, plicate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 1- to few-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals and petals free, subequal; lip erect, entire or 3-lobed, spurred or saccate, with longitudinal ridges on the upper surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column long, clavate; anther operculate, incumbent, 2-celled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinia
Pollinia 8 in 2 groups of 4 with caudicles but no viscidia.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma near apex of column.

[FTEA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial or rarely epiphytic herbs, with crowded internodes at base sometimes swelling to form a pseudobulb; roots fibrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves several, either arising from pseudobulb or spaced along an erect stem; petioles long; lamina elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, plicate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Flower-scape basal or lateral, usually erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence racemose, terminal, 1- to few-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually large, often conspicuously coloured
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Sepals free, subequal, spreading; petals similar, narrower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip erect, concave or cucullate, entire or ± 3-lobed, side lobes embracing column, base often adnate to column, spurred or saccate, longitudinally ridged on upper surface
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column elongate, clavate, 2-angled at apex, arms absent, foot sometimes present; anther operculate, incumbent, distinctly 2-celled, often hairy; pollinia 8 in 2 groups of 4, obovate-oblong, laterally compressed, caudiculate; viscidium absent; stigma near apex of column, occasionally with small appendages; rostellum present or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ellipsoid.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Panamá, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico

Calanthe R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 1, 2001 Johns, R.J. [10328], Indonesia 72528.000 No
Williamson, G. [863], Zambia 34437.000 No
Milliken, W. [1424], Indonesia 60023.000 No
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132583 Yes
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132582 Yes
Cheek, M. [5372], Cameroon 77436.000 No
Aug 28, 2015 HNK [838], Vietnam Cephalantheropsis K000341993 No
Lecoufle, New Caledonia Phaius 36142.000 No
Madagascar Phaius 47090.000 No
Du Puy, D.J. [M712], Madagascar Phaius 72587.000 No

First published in Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821)

Accepted by

  • Clayton, D. & Cribb, P. (2013). The Genus Calanthe: 1-411. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kurzweil, H. (2010). A precursory study of the Calanthe group (Orchidaceae) in Thailand Adansonia, III, 32: 57-107.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2006). Epidendroideae (Part One) Genera Orchidacearum 4: 1-672. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 7: 45. Nom. cons.
  • in Edw., Bot. Reg- t. 573 (1821)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Rolfe in F.T.A. 7: 45 (1897).
  • in Bot. Reg. 7, t. 573 (1821) nom conserv.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Rolfe in F.T.A. 7: 45 (1897)
  • Schltr. in F.R., Beih. 1: 376 (1912)
  • Seidenf. in Dansk Bot. Arkiv 29 (2): 9 (1975), nom. conserv.
  • in Bot. Reg. 7, t. 573 (1821)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0