Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Galium L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes slightly shrubby at the base, with erect, decumbent or ± climbing 4-angled stems, glabrous to hispid and sometimes with small prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of 3–10–many; blades setaceous to ovate, sometimes with prickly margins; stipules foliar and counted with the leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, usually very small, arranged in a basically thyrsoid inflorescence, but mostly in exinvolucrate ebracteate axillary or terminal cymes or rarely solitary; pedicel articulated with the calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube ovoid or globose; limb obsolete, but usually with a ring of sessile colleters
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually white, yellow or reddish, rotate; lobes (3–)4(–5)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (3–)4; filaments short, inserted in the very short tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, affixed to the septum, amphitropous; styles 2, short, sometimes connate below; stigmas capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc annular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 2-lobed, each lobe with 1 seed, leathery and ± dry or somewhat to quite distinctly fleshy, smooth or tuberculate, glabrous, hairy or with hooked bristles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with membranous testa adhering to the pericarp, dorsally convex, ventrally excavated; albumen horny.

[FZ]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or annuals.
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, creeping or climbing, often distinctly 4-angled, glabrous, hairy or with recurved prickles.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of 4–10, (sub)sessile, blades linear, lanceolate to (ob)ovate, mostly with a prominent midvein (1-nerved).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary and/or terminal many-to few-flowered cymes, hermaphrodite (and protandrous), rarely unisexual, 4-merous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate or (sub) campanulate, greenish (-yellow), creamy white to bright yellow, lobes ovate to triangular, acute to acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary bilocular, one ovule in each chamber, crowned by an often 2-lobed disk; style branches 2, joined below; stigmas capitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dry (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), glabrous or variously hairy, dehiscing into 2 (sub) globose or reniform mericarps, each with a single seed, round on dorsal side, ± excavated on ventral side; one mericarp occasionally aborted.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, often with 4-angled stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of 4–10 (including leaf-like stipules), sessile or almost so; blades linear to ovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary and/or terminal cymes, usually 4-merous and bisexual. Calyx-lobes obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla mostly rotate; lobes valvate in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with 1 ovule in each cell; style 2-fid with capitate stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dry or rarely fleshy, glabrous or hairy, of 2 parts (mericarps) or 1 mericarp sometimes aborted.
Distribution
Genus of perhaps 600 species, almost cosmopolitan but mostly present in temperate regions.
Note
G. simense Fresen. was said to occur in Somalia in Cuf. Enum.: 1026 (1965), but the record has not been verified and the species is omitted here.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Hawaii, Mauritius, Nigeria, Ogasawara-shoto, Réunion, Svalbard, Tristan da Cunha

Galium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 1, 2011 Vervloet [417], Brazil K000771006 Yes
Jul 1, 2011 Kollmann [5911], Brazil K000771008 Yes
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], Iran K001132358 Yes
Eiten, G. [6602], Brazil K001204870 Yes
Hunt, D.R. [6377], Brazil K001204871 Yes
Fontana, A.P. [4803], Brazil K001204877 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [19716], Brazil K001204874 Yes
Gardner [438], Brazil K001204868 Yes
Lourteig, A. [2131], Brazil K001204873 Yes
Lourteig, A. [2175], Brazil K001204872 Yes
Martinelli, G. [10897], Brazil K001204883 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [371], Brazil K001204878 Yes
Eiten, G. [7171], Brazil K001204885 Yes
Burchell [3800], Brazil K001204875 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [18342], Brazil K001204879 Yes
Eiten, G. [6617], Brazil K001204884 Yes
Kirkbride, J.H. Jr. [5524], Brazil K001204869 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [16026], Brazil K001204882 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [14303], Brazil K001204881 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [18342], Brazil K001204880 Yes
Camerick, A.M. [158], Brazil K001204876 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132357 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 105 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thompson, I.R. (2009). A revision of Asperula and Galium (Rubieae: Rubiaceae) in Australia. Muelleria 27: 36-112.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 3: 244.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 46 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.1: 105 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 46 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 105 (1753)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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