Apiaceae Lindl.

Sanicula L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial or more rarely biennial herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ternate, palmatipartite or pinnate, rarely undivided
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels simple, sometimes arranged to appear as if compound, in a dichasially branched cyme or more rarely racemosely arranged; involucre presentCalyx-teeth conspicuous, free to ± connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers polygamous, the outer few–many ♂, the inner (generally few) hermaphrodite, occasionally some umbels entirely ♂
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to yellowish, pink tinged or bluish, emarginate above with an incurved lobule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose to oblong-ovoid, not compressed, covered with prickles, scales or tubercles, the prickles often expanded below, straight or uncinate, sometimes connate at the base; mericarps not to distinctly narrowed to the commissure; primary ribs obsolete; vittae on the dorsal surface 3–many, on the commissural face usually 2; stylopodia flattened, concave or obscure; carpophore none
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm rounded dorsally, flattened to ± excavate on the commissural face.


Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Erect, rarely decumbent herbs, biennial or perennial.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, subsessile, usually somewhat coriaceous, palmately to pinnately divided; petioles with sheathing bases.
Morphology Stem
Stem usually branched in a pseudodichotomous manner.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels with hermaphrodite and male flowers, the hermaphrodite one frequently distinctly pedicellate, the male ones sessile to subsessile. Inflorescence of rather irregular compound umbels with few, unequal rays.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles short or long and spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodium depressed or obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovoid, densely covered with prickles or tubercles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae both large and small, regularly or irregularly arranged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed plane or concave on the commissural face.

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Sri Lanka

Sanicula L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 235 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.


Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 3: 7.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 109 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 235 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 109 (1754)
  • Shan & Constance, The genus Sanicula (Umbelliferae) in the Old World and the New, in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 25(1): 1–78 (1951)
  • Sp. Pl.: 235 (1753)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.