Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Vigna Savi

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to China.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Climbing, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate or 1-foliolate; stipules truncate, bilobed or spurred at the base or sometimes quite peltate; stipels ± persistent, rarely absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary or terminal, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1-many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis usually thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles ± deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed,the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple; standard with inflexed auricles and 2–4 appendages or sometimes a single structure on the internal face, less often without appendages; keel truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 360° (in some species the keel is twisted and untidy-looking and in others there is a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes (in subgen. Haydonia) with a pair of joined glands below each anther; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 3–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, sometimes produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate or rarely flattened or capitate beak; stigma completely lateral, oblique or rarely ± terminal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear or linear-oblong, cylindrical or flattened, straight or ± curved, usually ± septate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually eccentric, often 3-pronged.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

The New World species of Vigna may be significantly reduced with the removal of subgenus Sigmoidotropis (c. 17 spp., including V. caracalla (L.) Verdc., illustrated above) which is polyphyletic with respect to the rest of Vigna (Delgado Salinas et al., 1993)
Habit
Herbs
Ecology
Seasonally dry tropical woodland, wooded grassland and grassland, often in well drained sites with low fertility
Distribution
Palaeotropics and subtropics (c. 80-85 spp., mostly in Africa [c. 55-60 spp.; 4 spp. endemic to Madagascar] and SE Asia [c. 21 spp.]), c. 22 spp. in Neotropics and subtropics (but see taxonomic notes)

[FZ]

Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Climbing, twining, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks, without hooked hairs (as in Phaseolus).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate, 1-foliolate or simple; leaflets entire, venation usually reticulate, rarely with secondary nerves parallel (V. multinervis) or tertiary nerves parallel; stipules usually bilobed or spurred at the base, sometimes peltate, rarely truncate; stipels persistent, rarely absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1–many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels, flowers paired at each node; bracts and bracteoles deciduous, usually similar in shape and nervation; pedicel shorter than or as long as the calyx, extending or not as the pod matures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple inside (internal face of standard, external face of wings), greenish outside (external face of standard), all petals of subequal length; standard glabrous (except in V. heterophylla), emarginate, usually slightly wider than long and symmetrical, with inflexed auricles and appendages on the internal face, less often without appendages; appendages of the standard are based on a U-shaped pattern with one on each half of the standard, but the pattern is rarely complete; it can be reduced to the central part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel and very close together (central position), or sometimes joined and appearing V- or X-shaped (V.luteola or V. monophylla for example); it can be reduced to the lateral part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel but spaced apart (lateral position) (as in V. unguiculata); it can be reduced to the basal part of the U with the appendages appearing perpendicular to the standard axis (V. comosa); keel whitish except for the beak (if there is a beak), usually fused on the upper side, truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 180° (V. radiata), sometimes with a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal (V. vexillata for example).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes with a pair of joined glands below each anther (in subgenus Haydonia); anthers uniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen triporate, exine coarsely reticulate (except in subgenus Haydonia).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate beak (except in subgenus Haydonia); stigma completely lateral or oblique.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear or linear-oblong, usually terete, rarely flattened (V. macrorhyncha), with sutures not raised (except V. macrorhyncha), straight or curved, not septate (seeds are separated by a spongy tissue, not as woody as in Dysolobium and Pachyrhizus); style caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate, thickness usually slightly less than width, usually cream-coloured, cream-coloured in combination with grey, mottled and speckled patterns, or black; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually excentric, often 3-pronged.
Cytology
Chromosome count usually 2n=22, rarely 2n=20.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 100 species throughout the tropics.
Morphology General Habit
Climbing, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate or (not in Somalia) 1-foliolate
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules bilobed or spurred at the base, sometimes peltate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary or terminal, pseudoracemose or flowers in subumbellate clusters
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style with the upper part thickened, straight or curved, upper portion bearded or hirsute on the internal face, sometimes produced beyond the stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear, cylindrical or flattened.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Herb with short creeping stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules spurred, striate; stipels small, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered; peduncle bending downwards after flowering so that the fruits develop underground
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Fertile flowers small, without petals, ± 2 mm. long; functionally male flowers possessing petals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip of 3 short lobes; upper pair of lobes joined to form a bifid lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard auriculate, with 2 obscure appendages, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1–3-ovuled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods irregularly oblong-obovoid, beaked with a recurved style-base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid or ellipsoid, slightly keeled; hilum elliptic, placed towards one end; aril almost obsolete, thin, white.

[LOWO]
Use
Many species are major pulse, vegetable, fodder and green manure crops, e.g., V. angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi (azuki or adzuki bean) ; V. mungo (L.) Hepper (urd bean, black gram) ; V. radiata (L.) R.Wilczek (mung bean, green gram) ; V. umbellata (Thunb.) Owhi & H.Ohashi (rice bean) ; V. aconitifolia (Jacq.) Maréchal (moth bean) ; V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea, yard long bean) and V. subterranea (L.) Verdc. (bambara groundnut, bambara bean)

Native to:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Socotra

Introduced into:

Algeria, Arkansas, Bermuda, Christmas I., Comoros, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Libya, Line Is., Marquesas, Mississippi, North Caucasus, Oman, Primorye, Qinghai, Sakhalin, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang

Vigna Savi appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Aug 1, 2010 Mackinder, B. [224], Cameroon K000108259
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4570], Cameroon K000338570
Jan 19, 1993 Broom, Dr. [35], Australia K000279326
Jan 1, 1983 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8559], Cameroon K000087363
Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000279293
Bidwill [s.n.], Australia K000279303
Mitchell, T.L. [s.n.], Australia K000279302
Ollerton, J. [188], Guyana 77549.000
Burchell, W.J. [1537], Brazil K000931231
Brunt, M.A. [562], Cameroon K000087451
Hepper, F.N. [2112], Cameroon K000087366
Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000279300
Maitland, T.D. [906], Cameroon K000087372

First published in Nuovo Giorn. Lett., ser. 3, 8: 113 (1824)

Accepted by

  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 194.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Verdcourt in Taxon 27: 221 (1978).
  • in Pisa Nuov. Giorn. Lett. 8: 113 (1824) nom. conserv.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • in Pisa Nuov. Giorn. Lett. 8: 113 (1824)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Legumes of the World Online

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