Genus:
Amaranthus L.

Amaranthus tricolor L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia. It is used as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
ala de loro, amaranto, cucaracha

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1560 - 1560 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FWTA]

Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect herb, 2–6 ft. high; leaves, stems and flowers green or red
Note
A cultivated spinach.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1560–1560 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Quindío.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: artificial - terrestrial.

[FZ]

Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, ascending or erect, attaining c. 1.25 m. in cultivation in Africa (taller in Asia).
Morphology Stem
Stem stout and usually branched, both it and the branches angular, glabrous or furnished in the upper parts with sparse (or denser in the inflorescence), more or less crisped hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the inferior surface of the primary venation, green or purplish-suffused, long-petiolate (petioles to c. 8 cm. long), the lamina broadly ovate, rhomboid-ovate or broadly elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, acute to obtuse or emarginate at the apex, shortly cuneate to attenuate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers green to crimson, in more or less globose clusters c. 4–25 mm. in diam., all or only the lower axillary and more or less distant, the upper sometimes without subtending leaves and increasingly approximate to form a thick terminal spike of variable length; male and female flowers intermixed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles broadly or deltoid-ovate; bracteoles subequalling or shorter than the perianth, pale-membranous, broadest near the base and narrowed upwards to the green midrib, which is excurrent to form a long, pale-tipped awn which is usually at least half as long as the basal part and not rarely equalling it.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments 3, 3–5 mm. long, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, narrowed above, pale-membranous, the green midrib excurrent into a long, pale-tipped awn; segments of the female flowers slightly accrescent in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 3, erect or recurved, c. 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short beak below the style-bases, 2.25–2.75 mm., membranous, obscurely wrinkled, circumcissile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–1.5 mm. wide, black or brown, shining, faintly reticulate.

[FTEA]

Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, ascending or erect, attaining ± 1.25 m. in cultivation in Africa (even more in tropical Asia).
Morphology Stem
Stem stout, usually much branched, it and the branches angular, glabrous or furnished in the upper parts with sparse (or denser in the inflorescence) ± crisped hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on lower surface of primary nervation, green or purplish-suffused, very variable in size, long-petiolate (up to ± 8 cm.) lamina broadly ovate, rhomboid-ovate or broadly elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, emarginate to obtuse or acute at the apex, at the base shortly cuneate to attenuate, decurrent along the petiole.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers green to crimson, in ± globose clusters ± 4–25 mm. in diameter, all or only the lower axillary and distant, the upper sometimes without subtending leaves and increasingly approximate to form a thick terminal spike of variable length, ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles broadly ovate or deltoid-ovate; bracteoles subequalling or shorter than the perianth, pale and membranous, broadest near the base and gradually narrowed upwards to the green midrib which is excurrent to form a long pale-tipped awn usually at least half as long as the basal portion and not rarely equalling it.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-segments 3, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 3–5 mm. long, narrowed above, pale and membranous, the green midrib excurrent into a long pale-tipped awn, those of the ♀ flowers slightly accrescent in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 3, erect or recurved, ± 2 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short beak below the style-base, 2.25–2.75 mm., circumscissile, membranous, obscurely wrinkled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 1–1 5 mm., black or brown, shining, very faintly reticulate.
Figures
Fig. 4/6.
Distribution
Cultivated as a vegetable at Amani, and no doubt elsewhereapparently a native of tropical Asia, this species is a well-known ornamental and vegetable in the tropics P

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Angola, Benin, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Hainan, Haiti, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Maldives, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Sudan, Taiwan, Tibet, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yemen

English
Chinese Spinach

Amaranthus tricolor L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2008 Powell [X.I.1361] K000611690 No
Jan 1, 2008 Jibrin Sibil [268], Sabah K000611721 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6902] K001126119 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6902], Bangladesh K001126120 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899], India Amaranthus polygamus K001126107 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126110 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126105 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126109 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126104 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126108 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126106 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126071 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126072 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126074 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126073 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893], India Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126070 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126087 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126086 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126085 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6898] Amaranthus mangostanus K001126103 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126089 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126093 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126095 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126097 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126098 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126096 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126088 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126090 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126091 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126092 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126094 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905] Amaranthus tristis K001126127 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905] Amaranthus tristis K001126128 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6905], Nepal Amaranthus tristis K001126131 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905], Bangladesh Amaranthus tristis K001126130 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905], Bangladesh Amaranthus tristis K001126129 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1955-1958). Flora Malesiana 5: 1-595. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Thell. in Asch. & Grabner Synopsis 5, 1: 272.
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 32

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1955-1958). Flora Malesiana 5: 1-595. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 61 (1953).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 116 (1950).
  • J. G. Baker & C. B. Clarke in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 32 (1909).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753).
  • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 213 (1932).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0