Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Réunion, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, borne on plagiotropic shoots (leafy or floriferous lateral shoots of limited growth, see Phyllanthus).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, the male fasciculate or solitary, usually in the proximal axils, the female solitary, usually in the distal axils. Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate, calyx lobes 6, imbricate, sharply inflexed; petals absent; disk absent; stamens 3, united into a short column, anthers elongate, thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: pedicels sometimes capillary; calyx lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than in the male flowers, accrescent; disk absent; ovary 3-locular, ovules 2 per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ± baccate, tardily and often incompletely loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp sometimes somewhat fleshy; endocarp crustaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds trigonous, ecarunculate; testa membranous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad; radicle long.
Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or apparently dioecious shrubs or small trees, with or without a simple indumentum, often blackening on drying.
Morphology Stem
Branching phyllanthoid (see Tab. 8).

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or apparently dioecious shrubs or small trees with or without a simple indumentum, often blackening on drying
Morphology Leaves
Cataphylls present, as in Phyllanthus (q.v.) Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, arranged on shoots of limited growth (plagiotropic)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, the males fasciculate or solitary in the proximal axils, the females solitary in the distal axils Female flowers: pedicels capillary or not; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than those of the ♂ flower, accrescent; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, the distal halves sharply inflexed with their apices almost touching the androecium; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 3, united to form a short column, anthers elongate, the thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, the distal halves sharply inflexed with their apices almost touching the androecium; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 3, united to form a short column, anthers elongate, the thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
sex Female
Female flowers: pedicels capillary or not; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than those of the ♂ flower, accrescent; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit tardily and often incompletely loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp sometimes somewhat fleshy; endocarp crustaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds trigonous, ecarunculate.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vanuatu, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Bolivia, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marianas, Marshall Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Windward Is.

Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Johns, R.J. [8916], New Guinea 70224.000 No

First published in Char. Gen. Pl.: 145 (1776)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • van Welzen, P.C., Pruesapan, K., Telford, I.R.H., Esser, H.-J. & Bruhl, J.J. (2014). Phylogenetic reconstruction prompts taxonomic changes in Sauropus, Synostemon and Breynia (Phyllanthaceae tribe Phyllantheae). Blumea 59: 77-94.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Char. Gen. Pl.: 145, t. 73 (1776).
  • Müller Argoviensis in De Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 438 (1866), nom. conserv.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Char. Gen. Pl.: 145, t. 73 (1776)
  • G.P. 3(1): 276 (1880), nom. conserv.
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 438 (1866)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0