Croton L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to N. America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or sometimes dioecious trees, shrubs or, more rarely herbs or lianes, with an indumentum of stellate hairs and/or peltate scales
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, usually with 2 sessile or stalked discoid glands at the base of the blade, usually with stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences racemose or spicate, rarely paniculate, with the female flowers usually below the males, or unisexual-
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), free; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, rarely absent; stamens central, 5–many, free Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in males; petals often smaller than in males, or absent; disc annular or composed of separate glands, or rudimentary; ovary (2–)3(–4)-celled, with 1 ovule per cell; styles 1 to several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dehiscing septicidally into 3 cocci, or loculicidally into 3 valves, or sometimes drupaceous or berry-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually smooth, carunculate.
Distribution
Genus of over 1100 species throughout the tropics.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or sometimes dioecious trees or shrubs (or herbs or lianes outside the Flora Zambesiaca area) with a stellate and/or lepidote indumentum.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes subopposite or ± whorled, stipulate, petiolate, with 2 or more sessile or stipitate discoid glands at the petiole apex or the lamina base, simple, entire, toothed or lobed, penninerved or palminerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually terminal, racemose, androgynous or unisexual; bracts small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers shortly pedicellate; buds subglobose; sepals (4)5(6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals (4)5(6), free; disk glands opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy; stamens 5–many, free, filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; receptacle usually pilose; pistillode absent. Female flowers pedicellate; sepals generally persistent, slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller than in male flowers, sometimes replaced by tufts of hairs or absent; staminodes sometimes present; disk annular, or of separate glands, or vestigial; ovary 2(3)4-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, or multifid or multipartite.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci, loculicidally dehiscent into 3 valves, irregularly frangent (breaking up) or drupaceous and indehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds carunculate; testa woody or crustaceous; albumen fleshy, copious; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or more rarely dioecious trees, shrubs or, more rarely, herbs or lianes, with an indumentum of stellate hairs or peltate scales, separately or in combination
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or sometimes subopposite or subverticillate on the same shoot, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed (not in E. Africa), penninerved or 3–many-nerved from the base, petiolate, usually with two (sometimes more) sessile or stalked discoid glands at the base of the blade, generally stipulate, often turning bright yellow or red when dying
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, sometimes axillary, racemose or spicate, with the flowers sometimes in fascicles or glomerules on the spike, rarely paniculate, androgynous, with the ♀ flowers usually below the ♂’s, or unisexual; bracts small, caducous or persistent
sex Male
Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
sex Female
Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dehiscent, septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, or loculicidally into 3 valves, or sometimes drupaceous or berry-like, and then subindehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth or more rarely rugulose, generally triangular-convex in transverse section, carunculate, with a woody or crustaceous testa and abundant fleshy albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau, Japan, Ontario, Rodrigues, Victoria, West Himalaya

Croton L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 1, 2014 s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Singapore K001132972 Yes
Andrieux, G. [109], Mexico K000503089 No
Purpus, C.A. [13049], Mexico K000503090 No
Orcutt, C.R. [4515], Mexico K000503093 No
Orcutt, C.R. [3305], Mexico K000503092 No
Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476733 No
Hinton, G.B. [10304], Guerrero K000476734 No
Hinton, G.B. [8757], México State K000476739 No
Hinton, G.B. [8979], México State K000476742 No
Hinton, G.B. [13006], Michoacán K000476744 No
Hinton, G.B. [4268], México State K000476749 No
Palmer, E.W. [288], Chihuahua K000476755 No
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132963 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [944], México State K000476735 No
Palmer, E.W. [63], Tamaulipas K000476752 No
Langlassé, E. [824], Mexico K000503095 No
Hinton, G.B. [10334], Guerrero K000476746 No
Hinton, G.B. [11978], Michoacán K000476743 No
Hinton, G.B. [6118], Guerrero K000476748 No
Orcutt, C.R. [3303], Mexico K000503091 No
Hinton, G.B. [4348], México State K000476745 No
Palmer, E.W. [1147], Mexico K000476751 No
Andrieux, G. [110], Mexico K000503088 No
Hinton, G.B. [10520], Guerrero K000476738 No
Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476732 No
Palmer, E.W. [390], Coahuila K000476750 No
Hinton, G.B. [1200], México State K000476736 No
Palmer, E.W. [1138 1/2], Mexico K000476753 No
Hinton, G.B. [12690], Michoacán K000476740 No
Hinton, G.B. [11818], Michoacán K000476741 No
Langlassé, E. [1020], Mexico K000503094 No
Hinton, G.B. [7860], Guerrero K000476737 No
Brunt, M.A. [273], Cameroon K000181037 No
Palmer, E.W. [93], Jalisco K000476754 No
Hinton, G.B. [4293], México State K000476747 No
Lindeman, J.C. [6163], Brazil Julocroton K001210360 Yes
Arbo, M.M. [3236], Brazil Julocroton K001210363 Yes
Tweedie, J. [153], Argentina Julocroton K001210362 Yes
Palacios-Cuezzo [1885], Brazil Julocroton K001210361 Yes
Folli, D.A. [1758], Brazil Julocroton K001210359 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Caruzo, M.B.R. & Cordeiro, I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae). Phytotaxa 121: 1-41.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Riina, R., Van Ee, B.W., Rossi Caruzo, M.B., Carneiro-Torres, D.S., Freitas dos Santos, R. & Berry, P.E. (2021). The Neotropical Croton sect. Geiseleria (Euphorbiaceae): Classification Update, Phylogenetic Framework, and Seven New Species from South America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 106: 111-166.
  • Sordé, R.C. & al. (2019). Taxonomic synopsis of Croton section Geiseleria (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil, including description of a new species. Phytotaxa 417: 1-105.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Pax & K. Hoffm. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19C: 83 (1931).
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 746

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • G.P. 3(1): 293 (1880)
  • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 746 (1912)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754)
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 512 (1866)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte,

  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Somalia

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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