Sapium P.Browne

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Usually monoecious, glabrous trees, shrubs, subshrubs or rarely perennial herbs, often with a milky latex.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or subopposite, petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire or dentate, penninerved, usually with glands at the base and/or on the margins beneath.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually terminal or leaf-opposed, spicate or racemiform, solitary, bisexual and mostly male with 1 or more female flowers at the base, rarely the female flowers solitary; male bracts 1–many-flowered, usually 2-glandular at the base; bracteoles minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: pedicels jointed or absent; calyx ± open in bud, 2–3(4)-lobed; petals absent; disk absent; stamens 2–3(4), free or slightly connate, usually exserted, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: pedicels usually long; sepals 2–3(4), free or united, imbricate or open; petals absent; disk absent; ovary (2)3(4)-locular, ornamented or not, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2)3(4), ± free or united, entire, often coiled, usually soon falling.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit (2)3(4)-lobed, dehiscing septicidally into (2)3(4) bivalved cocci, or the cocci indehiscent, or the fruit loculicidally or irregularly dehiscent, or indehiscent and drupaceous or bacciform; exocarp smooth or horned, separating or not from the woody or crustaceous endocarp; columella persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ecarunculate or rarely carunculate; sarcotesta thin or fleshy; endotesta crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or rarely dioecious usually completely glabrous trees, shrubs or subshrubs, often with a milky latex
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely apparently opposite, petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire or toothed, penninerved, usually glandular beneath and/or on the margins, and commonly with a pair of glands near the apex of the petiole
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed, rarely axillary, usually simply spicate or racemiform, solitary or rarely fascicled, bisexual or rarely unisexual, commonly mostly ♂ with 1 or more ♀ flowers at the base, rarely the ♀ flowers solitary; ♂ bracts (1–)many-flowered, usually biglandular (sometimes eglandular or pluriglandular) at the base; bracteoles often present, minute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: pedicel articulate or 0; calyx ± open in bud, cupuliform, 2–3(–4)-lobed or -partite or rarely with ± free sepals, the lobes imbricate, subvalvate or valvate, small, membranaceous; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 2–3(–4), free or slightly connate at the base, usually exserted, filaments short, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae free at the base, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0 Female flowers commonly long-pedicellate; sepals 2–3(–4), free or variously united, ± imbricate or not touching each other; petals 0; disc 0; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, ornamented or not with appendages, and with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), ± free or united at the base, entire, often strongly coiled, usually soon falling
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicel articulate or 0; calyx ± open in bud, cupuliform, 2–3(–4)-lobed or -partite or rarely with ± free sepals, the lobes imbricate, subvalvate or valvate, small, membranaceous; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 2–3(–4), free or slightly connate at the base, usually exserted, filaments short, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae free at the base, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
sex Female
Female flowers commonly long-pedicellate; sepals 2–3(–4), free or variously united, ± imbricate or not touching each other; petals 0; disc 0; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, ornamented or not with appendages, and with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), ± free or united at the base, entire, often strongly coiled, usually soon falling
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit (2–)3(–4)-lobed, globose or obpyriform, dehiscing septicidally into (2–)3(–4) bivalved cocci, or else the cocci closed, or fruit loculicidally or irregularly dehiscent, or else indehiscent and drupaceous or bacciform; exocarp smooth or cornute, often ± coriaceous, separating or not from the endocarp; endocarp woody or crustaceous, thick or thin; columella generally persistent, shortly 3-winged
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds (1–)2–3(–4) per fruit, globose to oblong, rarely carunculate; sarcotesta thin or fleshy; endotesta crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Sapium P.Browne appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
16785.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [14084], Ecuador 58771.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [14084], Ecuador 58775.000 No

First published in Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica: 338 (1756)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 5: 199 (1912).
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 1009

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica: 338 (1756).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • G.P. 3(1): 334 (1880)
  • Hist. Jamaica: 338 (1756)
  • J. Léon. in F.C.B. 8: 151 (1962)
  • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(5): 199 (1912)
  • Prain in F.T.A. 6(1): 1009 (1913)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0