Ficus Tourn. ex L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FZ]

Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or (gyno)dioecious.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined, with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi-amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences (figs or syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood, down to the base of the trunk.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 2–3(4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or 2–3 subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts); numerous bracts in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(7), free or connate; ovary free, stigmas 1 filiform or infundibuliform or 2 and ± filiform or subulate, the stigmas cohering; pistillate flowers in (gyno)dioecious taxa are strongly differentiated into long-styled and short-styled flowers, while in monoecious taxa (where all pistillate flowers set seed) styles of intermediate lengths often occur. Staminate flowers occur near the ostiole or dispersed within the inflorescence, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1–3, pistillode mostly absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits achene-like or more often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp body (pyrene) or not; at the fruiting stage the wall of the fig becomes ± fleshy, yellow, orange, red, pink or purplish, or green. “Gall fruits” achene-like. Figs consist of an urceolate receptacle with a ± narrow apical opening (ostiole), the flowers enclosed within; figs are functionally bisexual, containing staminate flowers, long styled flowers (destined to produce seeds) and short styled flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator); or the figs on one plant occur as “gall figs” containing staminat flowers and short styled flowers (which do not produce seeds but serve as breeding sites for the pollinator) and on another plant occur as “seed figs” containing only long-styled, fully functional, pistillate flowers.

[FTEA]

Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or dioecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in spirals, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi- amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Figs unisexual, containing staminate flowers, seed flowers (destined to produce seeds) and gall flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator) or the figs on one plant containing staminate flowers and gall flowers (gall figs) and on another plant containing only seed flowers (seed figs); bracts 2–3(–4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts), many in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts) Inflorescences (figs; syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf-axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf-axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood down to the base of the trunk
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle urceolate, with a narrow apical opening (ostiole)
sex Male
Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional) Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
sex Female
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits achene-like or often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp-body (pyrene) or not; at fruit the wall of the fig mostly ± fleshy, coloured or green; gall fruits achene-like.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules free or ± fused, encircling the stem, covering the terminal bud, caducous, leaving a circular scar round the stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a bisexual, fleshy, globular or pear-shaped, hollow receptacle (a “fig”) with male, female and neuter (“gall”) flowers covering the inside and a narrow opening (“ostiole”), partly closed by bracts Flowers very small on inside of receptacle, bracteate, pedicellate or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacles occasionally stipitate, i.e. with a short stalk above the basal bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers numerous; tepals 2–6; ovary ovoid, ± asymmetrical; style lateral; stigmatic branches 1–2 Male flowers usually few, mostly situated near the ostiole; tepals 2–4; stamens 1–6; rudimentary ovary absent
Morphology General Galls
Gall flowers mostly as the female flowers, but usually pedicellate and with reduced style and stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an achene Figs and peduncles sometimes completely covered when young by a flat or conical structure (“calyptra”) consisting of fused bracts attached on the branch at the base of the peduncle Figs sessile or pedunculate, usually with 2–3 basal bracts, situated where the receptacle narrows into the peduncle, sometimes also with bracts spirally arranged on the outside
Note
Flowers and fruits are not described under the individual species.
Distribution
Over 800 species, pantropical.
Morphology General Habit
Monoecious trees or shrubs, mostly epiphytic at first, with watery, colourless, or milky latex
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, or sometimes opposite or subopposite, petiolate, pinnately or palmately veined

Native to:

Afghanistan, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Arkansas, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., France, Galápagos, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Juan Fernández Is., Krym, Madeira, Massachusetts, Morocco, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Uzbekistan, Wake I., Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Ficus Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 27, 2013 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000946828 Yes
Jul 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [412], Cameroon K000027241 No
Jan 1, 1996 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8207], Brazil K000946827 Yes
Oct 1, 1980 Glaziou, A.F.M. [13213], Brazil K000946824 Yes
Eyles, F. [8818], Zimbabwe 13148.000 No
Kenya 13149.000 No
Robson, N.K. [928], Zambia 13150.000 No
Keay, R.W.J. [25803], Nigeria 13151.000 No
Angus, A. [435], Zambia 15979.000 No
Forman, L.L. [282], Indonesia 15980.000 No
Forman, L.L. [189], Indonesia 17076.000 No
Forman, L.L. [210], Indonesia 17077.000 No
Sands, M.J.S. [401], Indonesia 26332.041 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [7892], Zambia 2710.000 No
Papua New Guinea 2716.000 No
Forman, L.L. [350], Indonesia 2717.000 No
Forman, L.L., Indonesia 2718.000 No
Rodway, F.A. [2543], Australia 2719.000 No
Hamilton, A.C. [93], Uganda 27461.010 No
Tanzania 29047.039 No
Newbould, J. [2481], Tanzania 29101.000 No
Small, D. [81], Sierra Leone 29372.000 No
Miller, A.K. [393], Uganda 29435.000 No
Dawkins, H. [671], Uganda 30414.000 No
Tweedie, E.M. [3305], Kenya 35459.000 No
Kajewcki [1912], Papua New Guinea 46960.000 No
Hepper [8170], Côte d'Ivoire 47009.000 No
Harris, D.J. [746], Central African Republic 53769.000 No
Harris, D.J. [492], Central African Republic 53771.000 No
Pennington, T.D. [10501], Ecuador 54211.000 No
Morren [3066], New Guinea 60069.000 No
Morren [3065], New Guinea 60080.000 No
Fay, J.M. [8637], Central African Republic 60243.000 No
Harris, D.J. [1110], Central African Republic 60361.000 No
Frodin, D.G. [3197A], New Guinea 63130.000 No
Frodin, D.G. [3358], New Guinea 63183.000 No
Harris, D.J. [1429], Central African Republic 63257.000 No
Cheek, M. [8888], Cameroon 63838.000 No
Coode, M. [4177], Reunion 7334.000 No
Hamilton, A.C. [95], Uganda 7554.000 No
Philcox, D. [4572], Brazil 7573.000 No
Jacobs [7932], Philippines 7666.000 No
Utteridge, T.M.A. [396], Indonesia 70091.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10494], Indonesia 70092.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10623], Indonesia 70093.000 No
Utteridge, T.M.A. [397], Indonesia 70094.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10617], Indonesia 70095.000 No
Utteridge, T.M.A. [42], Indonesia 62395.000 No
Utteridge, T.M.A. [81], Indonesia 62405.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 62497.000 No
Johns, R.J. [9781], New Guinea 62505.000 No
Puradyatmika, P. [10435], New Guinea 70577.000 No
Johns, R.J. [9766], New Guinea 70609.000 No
Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70610.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10425], New Guinea 70615.000 No
Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70616.000 No
Johns, R.J. [9780], New Guinea 70620.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.976 No
Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.973 No
Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.978 No
Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.979 No
Johns, R.J. [10472], New Guinea 29047.980 No
Triono, T. [174], New Guinea 29047.981 No
Johns, R.J. [10667], New Guinea 64379.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10450], New Guinea 64378.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10493], New Guinea 64417.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10446], New Guinea 64382.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10661], New Guinea 64380.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 64384.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10494], New Guinea 64383.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10435], New Guinea 71247.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10405], New Guinea 71252.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10503], New Guinea 71249.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10511], New Guinea 71250.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10510], New Guinea 71261.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10682], New Guinea 71262.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 70652.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10713], Indonesia 72653.000 No
Johns, R.J. [8747], Indonesia 72668.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10470], Indonesia 70000.098 No
Johns, R.J. [10512], Indonesia 64591.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64593.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64594.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 72681.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10595], Indonesia 72680.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10511], Indonesia 72679.000 No
Harley, R.M. [21392], Brazil 72757.000 No
Chevalier, A. [22444], Ivory Coast K000243191 Yes
Fyffe, R. [77], Uganda K000243355 Yes
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 70000.145 No
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 64616.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10797], Indonesia 64620.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10802], Indonesia 73262.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 73276.000 No
Walker, J.S. [DB325], Sulawesi 73935.000 No
Walker, J.S. [DB165], Sulawesi 73949.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64563.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64564.000 No
Johns, R.J. [10796], New Guinea 64726.000 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Nepal K001132560 Yes
Rosário, C.S. [1007], Brazil K000946825 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21515], Brazil K000946826 Yes
Spruce, R. [2217], Brazil K000946433 Yes
Pott, A. [2464], Brazil K000946823 Yes
Cheek, M. [8273], Cameroon K000381398 No
Asongani, J.N. [1298], Cameroon K000436266 No
s.coll. [2217], Brazil K000946432 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Berg, C.C. & Villavicencio, X. (2004). Taxonomic studies on Ficus (Moraceae) in the West Indies, extra-Amazonian Brazil, and Bolivia Ilicifolia 5: 1-130.
  • Chantarasuwan, B., Berg, C.C. & van Welzen, P.C. (2013). A revision of Ficus subsection Urostrigma (Moraceae) Systematic Botany 38: 653-686.
  • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Taiwania 57: 193-216.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Pederneiras, L.C. & Romaniuc-Neto, S. (2019). Taxonomic revision of Ficus sect. Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) Systematic Botany Monographs 107: 1-148.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 78

Flora Zambesiaca

  • C.C. Berg in F.T.E.A., Moraceae: 43 (1989)
  • Corner in Gard. Bull., Singapore 21: 1 (1965).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)
  • in Kirkia13: 253–291 (1990).
  • van Greuning in S. Afr. J. Bot.56, 6: 599–630 (1990).

Flora of Somalia

  • Aweke in Meded. Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 79-3: 1–115 (1979)
  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Friis in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23a: 407–424 (1990).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

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