Family:
Malvaceae Juss.

Hibiscus L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to N. America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs or trees, with indumentum of stellate or sometimes simple hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves entire to deeply lobed, with variously toothed to subentire margins; foliar nectaries sometimes present; stipules usually subulate to linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers usually solitary in leaf axils, sometimes merging into terminal inflorescences
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx mostly present, of 5–20 bracts; bracts free or rarely partly united, sometimes forked at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± deeply 5-lobed or rarely splitting into 2(–3) lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals mostly yellow, sometimes with a dark base, red or white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary usually 5-celled, each cell 3–many-ovulate; style with 5 distinct branches and capitate stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule, sometimes separating from the receptacle and disintegrating at maturity, with (1–)3 or more seeds per cell
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform, glabrous to hairy, smooth to tuberculate.
Distribution
Over 400 species in all tropical and subtropical regions.
Note
This is a large and diverse genus, which has been variously subdivided into sections by different authors.

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule.– Capsule winged or with very prominent angles (TAB. 89 fig. 2)Series 13 (Pterocarpus).
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with annual shoots arising from woody rootstocks or underground stems), shrublets, shrubs or (rarely) small trees.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, simple, lobed or digitately compound.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually solitary, axillary and often forming terminal racemose or corymbose inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves, medium to large, often yellow with a dark centre or red, pink, purplish or white; peduncle usually articulated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx (occasionally absent) of 5–20 bracts very variable in shape and length, free or adnate to the base of the calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-merous, usually with 5 lobes (or rarely 5 or 10 teeth) joined at the base or more rarely almost to the apex, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube truncate at the apex; free parts of filaments very variable in length, sometimes whorled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 4–5-locular; loculi 3–? -ovulate; style usually 5-branched.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes arising from woody rootstocks or underground stems, shrublets, shrubs or (rarely) small trees; indument stellate, rarely also simple
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, simple, lobed or digitately compound, stipulate, the stipules usually subulate to linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually solitary and axillary but often forming terminal, racemose or corymbose inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle usually articulated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx of 5–20 bracts, free or adnate to the base of the calyx, occasionally absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, rarely 5- or 10-toothed, joined at base or more rarely almost to the apex, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla often yellow with a dark red centre or red, pink, purple or white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube with five minute teeth at the apex; free parts of filaments variable in length, sometimes whorled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4–5locular; loculi 3–many-ovulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule, not separating from the receptacle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3-more per locule, reniform.
Note
200 species in warm temperate and tropical regions. 53 species are found in the wild in East Africa, and 6 introduced species commonly cultivated as ornamentals. Variation within many species is wide with some apparently intergrading in southern Africa, the centre of diversity for this genus. Further study of live material in the field will enable improvement of this account. Several species of Hibiscus have been introduced in cultivation, either from other parts of the world or from the wild.

[FSOM]
Use
Some species are popular ornamental plants.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Amur, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bermuda, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chita, Colorado, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., France, Galápagos, Germany, Great Britain, Idaho, Irkutsk, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Line Is., Madeira, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Mongolia, Montana, New Brunswick, New Zealand South, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Oregon, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Washington, Wyoming, Xinjiang

Hibiscus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Hunt, D.R. [5535], Brazil K001218419 Yes
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132953 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218417 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218418 Yes
Hunt, D.R. [5535], Brazil K001218420 Yes
Manning, S.D. [666], Cameroon K000105069 No
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132952 Yes
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132951 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218421 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 693 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Chase, M.W. (2017). Plants of the World. An illustrated encyclopedia of vascular plants: 1-792. Kew Publishing, The university of Chicago Press.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 194.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 310 (1754).
  • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève, 4: 23 (1900).
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 693 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, 4: 23 (1900)
  • Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 2: 391 (1921)
  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 310 (1754)
  • Kubitzki, Fam. & Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 284 (2003)
  • Miller, Gard. Bot. Abr. ed. 4 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 693 (1753)
  • Thes. Zeyl.: 133 (1737)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

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  • Flora of Somalia

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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