Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial; leaves not aromatic; ligule membranous or reduced to a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of paired or digitate (rarely solitary) racemes, terminal or axillary, the latter often numerous and crowded into a leafy false panicle; raceme-base terete, rarely deflexed at maturity; racemes without homogamous spikelet-pairs at the base (or these present but scarcely differentiated); internodes and pedicels filiform to obovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet dorsally or laterally compressed; callus obtuse, inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume membranous to coriaceous, flat to concave or deeply grooved on the back, 2-keeled, the keels lateral or dorsal, sometimes narrowly winged, with or without intercarinal nerves; lower floret barren, reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bilobed, awned from between the lobes (rarely entire and awnless); caryopsis narrowly lanceolate to oblong, subterete to plano-convex Pedicelled spikelet male or barren (rarely suppressed), never concave on the back, usually awnless.
Distribution
Over 100 species throughout the tropics.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis narrowly lanceolate to oblong, subterete to plano-convex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren (occasionally suppressed), never concave on the back, usually awnless. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, or squeezed between pedicel and internode; callus obtuse, inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume membranous to coriaceous, mostly flat, concave or deeply grooved on the back, 2-keeled, the keels lateral or dorsal, with or without intercarinal nerves; upper glume awned or not; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into a conspicuous awn with a glabrous or puberulous column
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren (occasionally suppressed), never concave on the back, usually awnless.
Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials, mostly robust
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, never aromatic; ligule membranous or reduced to a ciliate rim
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of paired or digitate (rarely solitary) racemes, terminal on the culm or axillary, in the latter case often numerous and crowded into a spathate false panicle; racemes very rarely deflexed at maturity, lacking homogamous pairs or these not conspicuously differentiated from the rest; internodes and pedicels filiform to obovoid, ciliate to plumose (rarely glabrous)
Sessile
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, or squeezed between pedicel and internode; callus obtuse, inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume membranous to coriaceous, mostly flat, concave or deeply grooved on the back, 2-keeled, the keels lateral or dorsal, with or without intercarinal nerves; upper glume awned or not; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into a conspicuous awn with a glabrous or puberulous column

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (7), or perennial (99). Rhizomes absent (101), or short (5), or elongated (3). Culms erect (44/54), or geniculately ascending (10/54), or decumbent (4/54), or rambling (3/54); robust (5/8), or slender (3/8); 5-103.2-400 cm long; firm (102), or wiry (4); without nodal roots (1/1), or with prop roots (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (1/1), or channelled (1/1). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3/32), or sparse (19/32), or ample (9/32), or fastigiate (1/32), or suffrutescent (2/32). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (99), or erect (10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (73), or a ciliolate membrane (33), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (104), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (98), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (105), or coriaceous (1); stiff (12), or firm (93), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib evident (2/5), or conspicuous (2/5), or widened (1/5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence simple (45), or compound (65); scanty (13/59), or linear (24/59), or paniculate (23/59), or fastigiate (1/59), or fasciculate (1/59). Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or composed of racemes; terminal (36), or terminal and axillary (76); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (38), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1), or a spatheole (70); exserted (87), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (19), or enclosed (5). Spatheole linear (44/62), or lanceolate (21/62), or elliptic (1/62); membranous (1/8), or herbaceous (7/8), or scarious (3/8). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Racemes single (15), or paired (76), or digitate (43), or borne along a central axis (1); erect (1), or ascending (103), or deflexed (2); unilateral (2/5), or bilateral (3/5); bearing few fertile spikelets (1), or many spikelets (105); bearing 2-3 fertile spikelets on each (1/5), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (3/5), or 7-10 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 12-25 fertile spikelets on each (1/5). Rhachis tough (1), or fragile at the nodes (105); deciduous from axis (1/1); subterete (4/6), or semiterete (2/6). Spikelet packing contiguous (103), or lax (3). Rhachis internodes filiform (35), or linear (41), or columnar (1), or oblong (3), or clavate (20), or cuneate (14), or inflated (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse (103/105), or oblique (2/105); flat (4), or cupuliform (68), or crateriform (34). Raceme-bases brief (103), or filiform (1), or linear (2), or flattened (1); subequal (3/4), or unequal (the longer measured) (1/4); unappendaged (105), or shortly lobed (1). Spikelets squeezed between internode and pedicel (7/48), or appressed (34/48), or ascending (6/48), or spreading (1/48); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (38), or linear (43), or oblong (2), or clavate (15), or cuneate (16), or inflated (2); tip rectangular (3/13), or widened (1/13), or cupuliform (1/13), or lobed (8/13).
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets absent (103), or well-developed (3). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (9), or represented by single glumes (13), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (86); persistent (18/48), or deciduous with the fertile (2/48), or separately deciduous (28/48). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (46/71), or mucronate (8/71), or awned (26/71).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (22), or lanceolate (78), or elliptic (10), or oblong (12), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (12), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (93); 2-5.421-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (82), or square (8), or oblong (11), or cuneate (5), or linear (1); glabrous (5/87), or pubescent (21/87), or pilose (52/87), or bearded (9/87); base truncate (3), or obtuse (101), or acute (1), or pungent (1); attached transversely (4), or inserted (102). Basal sterile spikelets absent (103), or well-developed (3). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (9), or represented by single glumes (13), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (86); persistent (18/48), or deciduous with the fertile (2/48), or separately deciduous (28/48). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (46/71), or mucronate (8/71), or awned (26/71).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (22), or lanceolate (78), or elliptic (10), or oblong (12), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (12), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (93); 2-5.421-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (82), or square (8), or oblong (11), or cuneate (5), or linear (1); glabrous (5/87), or pubescent (21/87), or pilose (52/87), or bearded (9/87); base truncate (3), or obtuse (101), or acute (1), or pungent (1); attached transversely (4), or inserted (102).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (21), or lanceolate (75), or elliptic (12), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); membranous (19), or chartaceous (18), or herbaceous (3), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (64); 2-keeled; wingless (98), or winged on keel (10); 2 -veined (1/9), or 4 -veined (4/9), or 5 -veined (2/9), or 6 -veined (3/9), or 7 -veined (1/9). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (105), or ribbed (1); intercarinal veins absent (50/74), or obscure (3/74), or distinct (23/74). Lower glume surface convex (9), or flat (26), or concave (67), or with a longitudinal median groove (12), or grooved on either side of midvein (1), or deeply depressed (18); smooth (102), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2); without pits (104), or pitted (1), or lacunose (1); glabrous (101), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (8), or pilose (4), or hirsute (2), or villous (2). Lower glume apex entire (84), or erose (1), or dentate (22); 2 -fid (22/22); emarginate (1/13), or obtuse (2/13), or acute (7/13), or acuminate (4/13), or caudate (1/13); muticous (105), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (52), or lanceolate (54), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1); membranous (40), or chartaceous (35), or coriaceous (31); 1-keeled; wingless (105), or winged on keel (1); 1 -veined (11/30), or 3 -veined (19/30), or 4-5 -veined (1/30). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (103), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Upper glume surface smooth (105), or scabrous (1); glabrous (104), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex entire (105), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/14), or acute (9/14), or acuminate (5/14); muticous (84), or mucronate (5), or awned (22); 1 -awned (21/21).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (2), or without significant palea (105). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2/105), or lanceolate (19/105), or oblong (84/105); hyaline; 0 -veined (5/71), or 1 -veined (3/71), or 2 -veined (65/71), or 3 -veined (6/71); obtuse (1/3), or acute (2/3). Fertile lemma linear (6), or lanceolate (59), or oblong (43); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (1/22), or 1 -veined (16/22), or 2 -veined (4/22), or 3 -veined (8/22). Lemma margins eciliate (91), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (9). Lemma apex entire (11), or dentate (14), or lobed (82); 2 -fid (96/96); incised 0.15-0.3915-0.6 of lemma length; acute (1/3), or acuminate (2/3); muticous (13), or mucronate (2), or awned (96); 1 -awned (96/96). Principal lemma awn apical (2/98), or from a sinus (96/98); straight (8/98), or curved (1/98), or flexuous (3/98), or geniculate (90/98). Column of lemma awn glabrous (88/90), or puberulous (2/90). Palea present (89), or absent or minute (19); 0.1-0.5614-1 length of lemma; hyaline (19/89), or membranous (70/89); 0 -veined (22/23), or 1 -veined (1/23), or 2 -veined (2/23); without keels (17/89), or 2-keeled (72/89). Palea keels smooth (71/72), or scabrous (1/72); eciliate (71/72), or ciliolate (1/72). Palea apex entire (1/2), or erose (2/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (12/12); fleshy (3/3); glabrous (11/12), or ciliate (1/12); truncate (3/3). Anthers 1 (8/65), or 2 (1/65), or 3 (58/65).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); linear (1/1).
Distribution
Europe (2), or Africa (50), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (11), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (3), or North America (20), or South America (44).

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes usually in pairs, sometimes solitary, arranged in a spatheate false panicle or in several subdigitate groups, usually exserted from the spatheoles; peduncles usually longer than the racemes, rarely the same length, erect at maturity; internodes and pedicels ± filiform or clavate, usually long-ciliate on both margins, occasionally inflated and canaliculate; lowermost pair of spikelets in the inferior raceme homogamous or not obviously different from the others.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet dorsally or laterally compressed, narrowly ovate; callus often rounded; inferior glume with a ± deep median groove or ± flat on the back, muticous, mucronate or awned; superior glume usually keeled and flat or ± strongly convex on the back; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, its lemma ± deeply bifid or entire, usually awned. Pedicelled spikelet male or sterile, sometimes vestigial, very rarely absent.

Doubtfully present in:

Réunion

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Transcaucasus, Western Australia

Andropogon L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8796] K001128229
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128252
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128270
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810], India K001128274
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810], India K001128275
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128276
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8814], Myanmar K001128286
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8820], Myanmar K001128299
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8826], Myanmar K001128306
Fonseca, M.L. [1231], Brazil K001106242
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8816], Myanmar K001128290
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8825], Myanmar K001128305
Dias-Melo, R. [249], Brazil K001106252
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128233
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8823], Nepal K001128303
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8811], Nepal K001132275
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8803] K001128250
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8807], Nepal K001128264
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128279
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8817] K001128291
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8795], India K001128228
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8815] K001128287 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818], India K001128293
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128278
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8802] K001128248
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128273
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128257
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8812], Myanmar K001128284
Glaziou, A. [22366], Brazil K001106237
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8821] K001128300
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8808], Nepal K001128265
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8807], Nepal K001128263
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8797], India K001128230
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8806], India K001128262
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128272
Glaziou, A. [22366], Brazil K001106238
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8813], Myanmar K001128285
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810], Nepal K001128277
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128231
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128280
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128254
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818] K001128292
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8815], Nepal K001128288
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128258
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001132276
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128267
Dias-Melo, R. [250], Brazil K001106253
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128282
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8801], Myanmar K001128247
Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8799], Nepal K001128235
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001128295
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001128296
Dias-Melo, R. [267], Brazil K001106251
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818] K001128297
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8802] K001128249
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8815], Nepal K001132277
Dias-Melo, R. [287], Brazil K001106254
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8798], Myanmar K001128234
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8822] K001128302
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8815] K001128289
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128261
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8811], Nepal K001128283
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8822] K001128301
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805], India K001128260
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128266
Glaziou, A. [20569], Brazil K001106240
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8809], Myanmar K001128271
Fonseca, M.L. [1231], Brazil K001106241
Dias-Melo, R. [289], Brazil K001106249
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8803] K001128251
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128259
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818], India K001128294
Glaziou [4302], Brazil K001106245
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128256
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128255
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128268
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128253
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8824] K001128304
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128269
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128232
Ule, E. [7747], Brazil K001106244
Ratter, J.A. [6303], Brazil K001106243
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128281
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8819], Myanmar K001128298
Argent, G. [6313], Brazil K001106239
Dias-Melo, R. [250], Brazil K001106250

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Clayton in Hook., Ic. Pl. 37: t. 3644 (1967).
  • F.T.A. 9: 208 (1919)
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. 1045 (1763)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Clayton in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 37: t. 3644 (1967).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754).
  • Heath in Calyx 4(2): 52 (1994).
  • J.G. Anderson in Bothalia 9: 5 (1966).
  • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 267–278 (1960).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Clayton in Hook., Ic. Pl. 37, t. 3644 (1967)
  • J.G. Anders. in Bothalia 9: 5 (1966)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0