Schizachyrium Nees

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to W. Pacific, America.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials, often tall but sometimes delicate
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, acute or obtuse at the tip; ligule membranous to scarious
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of single racemes, usually arranged in a spathate false panicle, but sometimes solitary at the top of the culm; racemes slender; internodes and pedicels linear to clavate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet linear to lanceolate; callus obtuse, inserted in the crateriform and scariously rimmed top of the internode; lower glume thinly chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, convex on the back, 2-keeled (or at least sharply inflexed), the keels ± frontal, with several intercarinal nerves; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, shortly bilobed or deeply bifid (very rarely entire), with a glabrous awn from the sinus (very rarely awnless) Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, commonly smaller than the sessile.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet linear to lanceolate; callus obtuse, inserted in the crateriform and scariously rimmed top of the internode; lower glume thinly chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, convex on the back, 2-keeled (or at least sharply inflexed), the keels ± frontal, with several intercarinal nerves; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, shortly bilobed or deeply bifid (very rarely entire), with a glabrous awn from the sinus (very rarely awnless)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis linear, subterete
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, commonly smaller than the sessile.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (23), or perennial (36). Rhizomes absent (50), or short (9), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (57), or present (1). Culms erect (26/38), or geniculately ascending (4/38), or decumbent (2/38), or prostrate (7/38), or rambling (4/38); robust (1/7), or slender (6/7); 5-64.63-300 cm long; without nodal roots (1/4), or rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (1/25), or sparse (11/25), or ample (13/25). Ligule an eciliate membrane (35), or a ciliolate membrane (23). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (55), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (57), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (57). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/3), or widened (1/3). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence simple (14), or compound (45); scanty (29/44), or linear (5/44), or paniculate (9/44), or fastigiate (3/44), or globose (1/44). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (4), or terminal and axillary (54); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (6), or a spatheole (52); exserted (32), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (25), or enclosed (4). Spatheole linear (48/52), or lanceolate (6/52); membranous (1/11), or herbaceous (10/11). Peduncle widened at apex (3/3). Racemes single; bearing 3-8-14 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete (5/49), or semiterete (44/49). Spikelet packing contiguous (56), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes filiform (6), or linear (10), or oblong (6), or clavate (30), or cuneate (12). Rhachis internode tip transverse (1/1); cupuliform (14), or crateriform (44). Spikelets squeezed between internode and pedicel (19/57), or appressed (34/57), or ascending (4/57), or spreading (1/57); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (57), or sessile and pedicelled (1); 1 in the cluster (57), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (57/57); 1 in the cluster (57/57). Pedicels filiform (9), or linear (24), or columnar (1), or oblong (2), or clavate (16), or cuneate (8), or inflated (1); tip widened (3/7), or cupuliform (2/7), or lobed (2/7).
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2), or represented by single glumes (4), or rudimentary (24), or well-developed (28); deciduous with the fertile (55/56), or separately deciduous (1/56). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (23/53), or awned (34/53).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (15), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (5), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (17), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (40); 2-5.518-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (53), or square (1), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); glabrous (2/54), or pubescent (27/54), or pilose (22/54), or bearded (3/54); base obtuse (57), or acute (1); attached obliquely (1/49), or inserted (48/49). Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2), or represented by single glumes (4), or rudimentary (24), or well-developed (28); deciduous with the fertile (55/56), or separately deciduous (1/56). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (23/53), or awned (34/53).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (15), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (5), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (17), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (40); 2-5.518-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (53), or square (1), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); glabrous (2/54), or pubescent (27/54), or pilose (22/54), or bearded (3/54); base obtuse (57), or acute (1); attached obliquely (1/49), or inserted (48/49).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (12), or lanceolate (40), or elliptic (7), or ovate (1); chartaceous (26), or cartilaginous (5), or coriaceous (29); 2-keeled (57/57); wingless (52), or winged on keel (6); 2 -veined (1/8), or 3 -veined (2/8), or 4 -veined (1/8), or 5 -veined (3/8), or 6 -veined (1/8), or 7 -veined (3/8), or 8-9 -veined (1/8), or 11-13 -veined (1/8). Lower glume intercarinal veins absent (4/45), or obscure (15/45), or distinct (26/45). Lower glume surface convex (41), or flat (12), or concave (7), or with a longitudinal median groove (1), or deeply depressed (1); smooth (48), or asperulous (9), or scabrous (1); glabrous (47), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or pilose (11), or hirsute (1), or villous (4). Lower glume apex entire (37), or dentate (21), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (22/22); emarginate (4/6), or obtuse (1/6), or acute (1/6), or acuminate (1/6); muticous (55), or mucronate (1), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (55), or oblong (3); membranous (54), or chartaceous (4); 1-keeled; wingless (57), or winged on keel (2); 1 -veined (9/20), or 2 -veined (1/20), or 3 -veined (12/20). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (56), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface smooth (56), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (56), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex entire (57), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/23), or acute (7/23), or acuminate (15/23); muticous (53), or mucronate (3), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (53); hyaline (57), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (8/29), or 2 -veined (21/29); obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2). Fertile lemma linear (4), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (48), or ovate (1); hyaline (56), or membranous (2); without keel; 0 -veined (1/38), or 1 -veined (30/38), or 2 -veined (1/38), or 3 -veined (6/38). Lemma margins eciliate (49), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (6), or dentate (3), or lobed (52); 2 -fid (54/54); incised 0.1-0.6598-0.9 of lemma length; muticous (4), or awned (57); 1 -awned (57/57). Principal lemma awn apical (3/57), or from a sinus (54/57); straight (1/57), or flexuous (1/57), or geniculate (56/57). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (57).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 3 (16/16).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (18/18); linear (2/9), or lanceolate (3/9), or ellipsoid (3/9), or oblong (2/9), or ovoid (2/9). Embryo 0.33-0.4686-0.5 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Africa (25), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (8), or Pacific (5), or North America (16), or South America (18).

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Racemes single, usually arranged in a spatheate false panicle, rarely solitary on the branches, usually not enclosed by the spatheoles; peduncles usually longer than the racemes, rarely shorter; internodes and pedicels ± clavate, glabrous or ciliate on both margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet dorsally or laterally compressed, narrowly ovoid to subterete; callus rounded; inferior glume chartaceous to subcoriaceous, with a ± deep and narrow median groove or ± flat or convex, with several intercarinal nerves, these distinct at least at the apex, awnless; superior glume usually keeled, with ± ciliate hyaline margins; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, the lemma usually keeled, ± deeply bifid, rarely entire, awned. Pedicelled spikelet male or vestigial, usually smaller than the sessile spikelet, rarely bisexual or female, mucronate or with a terminal awn.

Native to:

Alabama, Alberta, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Pakistan

Schizachyrium Nees appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8858], Cameroon K000936071 No
Jan 1, 1994 Williams, S. [92], Cameroon K000510858 No
Lonhi-Wagner, H. [6057], Brazil K001106296 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6033], Brazil K001106299 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3346], Brazil K001106293 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9192], Brazil K001106297 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5090], Brazil K001106298 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8937], Brazil K001106295 Yes
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8934], Brazil K001106294 Yes

First published in C.F.P.von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 331 (1829)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Agrost. Bras. 331 (1829)
  • F.T.A. 9: 184 (1917)
  • Jacques-Félix in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 33: 423.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Agrost. Bras.: 331 (1829).
  • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 172–180 (1960).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Agrost. Bras.: 331 (1829)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0