Dichanthium Willemet

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial; leaves sometimes aromatic; ligule membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal or sometimes also axillary, of single or subdigitate racemes, these sometimes pedunculate, with or without homogamous spikelet-pairs at the base; internodes and pedicels linear, solid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile, rarely herbaceous. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, obtuse; lower glume chartaceous to cartilaginous, broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, with or without a circular pit; upper lemma stipitiform, entire or rarely minutely 2-toothed, with a glabrous or puberulous awn
Distribution
Some 20 species in the Old World tropics.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of single, digitate or subdigitate racemes, these rarely branched below; spikelets conspicuously imbricate, those of a pair subequal to equal or unequal in size and shape, usually differing in sex except the lowermost 1–6 pairs which are, with rare exceptions, homogamous and male or neuter; rhachis internodes and pedicels solid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet callus obtuse; inferior glume chartaceous to cartilaginous, broadly convex to slightly concave, sometimes pitted, acute to broadly obtuse at the apex; superior lemma forming the hyaline base to its awn, entire; awn glabrous. Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile spikelet, male or neuter, awnless, rarely bisexual and awned.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (5), or perennial (17). Rhizomes absent (21), or short (1). Culms erect (12/19), or geniculately ascending (7/19), or decumbent (4/19); of moderate stature (1/3), or slender (1/3), or weak (1/3); 10-54.77-150 cm long; firm (18), or wiry (4); rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-internodes channelled (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (5/10), or sparse (3/10), or ample (4/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (21), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a ciliolate membrane (10). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (3), or firm (19); without exudate (21), or pruinose (1). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/5), or conspicuous (2/5), or widened (2/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence simple (21), or compound (1); linear (1/1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (21), or terminal and axillary (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20), or a spatheole (2); exserted (20), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (2/2); herbaceous (1/1). Peduncle widened at apex (1/1). Racemes single (14), or paired (7), or digitate (13), or borne along a central axis (1); bearing 5-10 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 15-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (4/20), or subterete (16/20). Rhachis internodes filiform (10), or linear (12). Rhachis internode tip transverse (3/5), or oblique (2/5); flat (3/3). Raceme-bases brief (13), or filiform (9). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (10), or linear (12).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or well-developed (15). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (2/19), or separately deciduous (17/19). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or obovate (2); dorsally compressed; 2-4.371-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (20), or square (1), or cuneate (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (12), or bearded (3); base obtuse; attached transversely (19), or attached obliquely (3).
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or well-developed (15). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (2/19), or separately deciduous (17/19).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or obovate (2); dorsally compressed; 2-4.371-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (20), or square (1), or cuneate (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (12), or bearded (3); base obtuse; attached transversely (19), or attached obliquely (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (8), or oblong (12), or ovate (1), or obovate (2); chartaceous (12), or cartilaginous (7), or coriaceous (3); without keels; wingless (18), or winged on keel (2), or winged on margins (2); 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (2/14), or 6 -veined (5/14), or 7 -veined (8/14), or 8 -veined (6/14), or 9 -veined (5/14), or 11 -veined (1/14), or 14-18 -veined (1/14). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (21). Lower glume surface convex (12), or flat (6), or concave (6), or with a longitudinal median groove (1); smooth (18), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (4); without pits (18), or pitted (4); glabrous (13), or pubescent (5), or pilose (5), or hirsute (1), or villous (1); without hair tufts (19), or with a transverse fringe of hair (5). Lower glume apex entire (20), or dentate (2); 3 -fid (1/1); truncate (5/16), or obtuse (9/16), or acute (7/16), or attenuate (1/16). Upper glume lanceolate (18), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2); membranous (1/5), or chartaceous (2/5), or cartilaginous (1/5), or coriaceous (1/5); with undifferentiated margins (21), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (3/21), or 1-keeled (18/21); 1 -veined (2/15), or 3 -veined (13/15). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (1); glabrous (21), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex entire (20), or erose (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/10), or acute (6/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (20), or mucronate (2), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1/9), or lanceolate (1/9), or elliptic (2/9), or oblong (4/9), or ovate (3/9); hyaline; 0 -veined (8/9), or 3-5 -veined (1/9); obtuse (3/4), or acute (2/4). Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (19/19). Lemma margins eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (20), or dentate (2), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (4/4); incised 0.2-0.43-0.66 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (20), or from a sinus (4); geniculate. Column of lemma awn glabrous (20), or puberulous (2). Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 2 (3/20), or 3 (17/20).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (10/10); ellipsoid (1/6), or oblong (2/6), or ovoid (1/6), or obovoid (3/6). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
Distribution
Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (17), or Australasia (8), or Pacific (5), or North America (3), or South America (3).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat or rolled, sometimes aromatic; ligule membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of single or subdigitate racemes, these with or without homogamous pairs at the base; internodes and pedicels linear, solid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, with or without a circular pit; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, entire or rarely minutely bidentate, with a glabrous or puberulous awn Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, with or without a circular pit; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, entire or rarely minutely bidentate, with a glabrous or puberulous awn
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Belize, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Japan, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Seychelles, St.Helena, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Dichanthium Willemet appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 18: 11 (1796)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 9: 177 (1917).
  • in Neue Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • De Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 12: 206–207 (1968).
  • in Usteri, Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.T.A. 9: 177 (1917)
  • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12: 206–227 (1968)
  • in Usteri, Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0