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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial (615/615). Rhizomes absent (547), or short (50), or elongated (36). Stolons absent (614), or present (10). Culms erect (288/316), or geniculately ascending (55/316), or decumbent (4/316); robust (19/86), or of moderate stature (31/86), or slender (42/86); 2.5-49.14-260 cm long; firm (618), or wiry (3); without nodal roots (55/56), or rooting from lower nodes (1/56). Culm-internodes terete (75/76), or channelled (1/76). Culm-nodes constricted (5/6), or swollen (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (195/197), or ample (2/197). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (280/418), or tubular for much of their length (141/418). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (494), or erect (122), or falcate (7). Ligule an eciliate membrane (463), or a ciliolate membrane (157), or a ciliate membrane (1), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent (610), or deciduous at the ligule (11); aciculate (12), or filiform (373), or linear (240); herbaceous (572), or coriaceous (49); stiff (132), or firm (480), or flaccid (30); without exudate (564), or pruinose (65). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (41/59), or evident (24/59), or conspicuous (5/59). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (619), or with obscure cross veins (2). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (3/4), or rectangular ribs (1/4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (580), or pungent (44).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Bisexual (610), or monoecious (2), or dioecious (9). Inflorescence a panicle, or comprising only a few spikelets (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (620), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (618), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (482/619), or contracted (154/619), or spiciform (6/619). Primary panicle branches not whorled (619), or whorled at most nodes (2). Spikelets appressed (5/6), or ascending (1/6); solitary (614/615), or in pairs (1/615). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (615/615). Pedicels filiform (3/3); tip rectangular (5/13), or widened (9/13). Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 0-4-13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (109/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (406/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3-9.199-40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (54/58), or pubescent (1/58), or pilose (3/58). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (67/80), or sparsely hairy (3/80), or pubescent (7/80), or pilose (5/80).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 0-4-13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (109/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (406/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3-9.199-40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (54/58), or pubescent (1/58), or pilose (3/58). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (67/80), or sparsely hairy (3/80), or pubescent (7/80), or pilose (5/80).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (619/619); shorter than spikelet (614/616), or reaching apex of florets (3/616), or exceeding apex of florets (1/616); thinner than fertile lemma (10), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (611); parallel to lemmas (620), or gaping (1). Lower glume subulate (5/616), or linear (52/616), or lanceolate (539/616), or elliptic (10/616), or oblong (13/616), or ovate (14/616), or obovate (1/616); 0.33-0.752-9 length of upper glume; hyaline (14/616), or membranous (74/616), or chartaceous (520/616), or herbaceous (10/616), or scarious (14/616), or cartilaginous (1/616), or coriaceous (17/616); without keels (597/611), or 1-keeled (16/611); 1 -veined (596/613), or 2 -veined (15/613), or 3 -veined (31/613), or 4-5 -veined (1/613). Lower glume lateral veins absent (583), or obscure (6), or distinct (42); without ribs (47/48), or ribbed (1/48). Lower glume surface smooth (553), or asperulous (40), or scabrous (43); glabrous (608), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4). Lower glume apex truncate (2/614), or obtuse (27/614), or acute (536/614), or acuminate (71/614), or attenuate (4/614), or setaceously attenuate (3/614); muticous (612/614), or mucronate (2/614), or awned (1/614). Upper glume linear (29/616), or lanceolate (501/616), or elliptic (24/616), or oblong (57/616), or ovate (80/616), or obovate (3/616); 0.33-0.8138-8.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (7/616), or membranous (55/616), or chartaceous (531/616), or herbaceous (2/616), or scarious (14/616), or coriaceous (13/616); with undifferentiated margins (559), or hyaline margins (15), or membranous margins (12), or scarious margins (35); without keels (600/616), or 1-keeled (16/616); 1 -veined (18/604), or 2 -veined (7/604), or 3 -veined (589/604), or 4 -veined (10/604), or 5 -veined (13/604). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (609/610), or ribbed (1/610). Upper glume surface smooth (541), or asperulous (44), or scabrous (53); glabrous (606), or puberulous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (4). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/613), or truncate (2/613), or obtuse (57/613), or acute (417/613), or acuminate (159/613), or attenuate (5/613), or setaceously attenuate (3/613); muticous (610/616), or mucronate (5/616), or awned (3/616); 1 -awned (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile florets bisexual (612), or female (9). Fertile lemma linear (7/616), or lanceolate (327/616), or elliptic (74/616), or oblong (192/616), or ovate (52/616), or orbicular (1/616); membranous (41/616), or chartaceous (563/616), or herbaceous (4/616), or scarious (4/616), or coriaceous (10/616); of similar consistency above (610), or much thinner above (11); of similar consistency on margins (593), or much thinner on margins (28); without keel (591/612), or keeled (21/612); 1-2 -veined (1/613), or 3 -veined (16/613), or 4 -veined (10/613), or 5 -veined (605/613), or 6-7 -veined (4/613). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (594), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (22); eciliate (620), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (37/63), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (7/63), or distinct (7/63), or prominent (12/63). Lemma surface smooth (369), or granulose (2), or asperulous (22), or scaberulous (132), or scabrous (132), or papillose (5), or punctate (1); glabrous (572), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (37), or pilose (6), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Lemma margins flat (620), or involute (1); eciliate (597), or ciliolate (12), or ciliate (23), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (596), or erose (4), or dentate (27); 2 -fid (25/27), or 3 -fid (2/27), or 4 -fid (1/27); emarginate (12/569), or obtuse (18/569), or acute (330/569), or acuminate (211/569), or attenuate (14/569), or setaceously attenuate (9/569), or cuspidate (2/569); without ornament (616), or scabrous (4), or pubescent (1); muticous (206), or pungent (1), or mucronate (105), or awned (454); 0 -awned (1/452), or 1 -awned (452/452). Principal lemma awn apical (476/505), or subapical (11/505), or from a sinus (19/505); straight (500/505), or curved (1/505), or flexuous (7/505); 0.1-0.7741-19 length of lemma. Palea 0.6-1.018-2 length of lemma; 2 -veined (578/578). Palea keels smooth (356), or scaberulous (107), or scabrous (164); eciliate (560), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or ciliolate (50), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (571), or puberulous (20), or pubescent (21), or pilose (9). Palea apex entire (3/69), or erose (1/69), or dentate (65/69); muticous (620), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (597/612), or distinct from fertile (15/612); 1 in number (2/2); barren (4/4); rudimentary (1/5), or linear (1/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (13/15), or mucronate (2/15), or awned (2/15).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 1 (1/112), or 2 (111/112); membranous (18/18); glabrous (109/112), or ciliate (5/112); entire (3/15), or with a small lateral lobe (3/15), or 2-toothed (11/15), or irregularly toothed (1/15). Anthers 3 (598/598). Ovary glabrous (251/398), or with a few apical hairs (28/398), or pubescent on apex (131/398).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (578/578); linear (5/165), or lanceolate (15/165), or fusiform (3/165), or ellipsoid (103/165), or oblong (15/165), or ovoid (2/165), or obovoid (29/165), or oblanceolate (1/165); dorsally compressed (1/1); plano-convex (1/2), or concavo-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.1-0.1958-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/564), or linear (562/564); 0.4-0.7649-1 length of caryopsis.
sex Male
Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11).
Distribution
Europe (192), or Africa (67), or Temperate Asia (158), or Tropical Asia (49), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (8), or North America (62), or South America (163), or Antarctica (5).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, or more often folded or convolute, sometimes auricled at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets several–many-flowered, ± laterally compressed; glumes subequal, narrow, the lower 1(–3)-nerved, the upper 3-nerved; lemmas ± lanceolate, rounded on the back, herbaceous or somewhat indurated, (3–)5-nerved, with an awn or awn-point from the tip, less often awnless or awned from just below the tip; ovary glabrous, or sometimes pubescent above, the styles apical.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets several-many-flowered, laterally compressed, pedicelled, solitary; rhachilla slender, slightly elongated, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets clearly exserted from the glumes, hermaphrodite but the uppermost one usually reduced; callus small, annular, usually glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes subequal, sometimes the inferior smaller, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, keeled; the inferior 1-3-nerved; the superior 3-nerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas lanceolate, (3-)5-(7)nerved, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, dorsally rounded or rarely somewhat keeled towards the apex, usually awned or with an awn-point from the apex, rarely awnless or awned dorsally from below the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas as long as or slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, usually with the apex 2-dentate, thinly membranous or hyaline, with the keels scaberulous or ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, entire or asymmetrically 2-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous or sometimes with the apex pubescent; styles 2, laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis usually elongate, usually free but tightly enclosed by the lemma and the palea, dorsally compressed and grooved; embryo small, not reaching 1/3 the length of the caryopsis; hilum basal.
Morphology General Habit
Caespitose perennials, often rhizomatous.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf-laminae folded or convolute, often setaceous, rarely expanded.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule scarious or sometimes membranous, usually entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 10-20 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-6.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-6.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes lateral; persistent; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex attenuate; mucronate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.5-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume apex attenuate; mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface smooth, or scabrous. Lemma apex emarginate, or truncate, or obtuse, or acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Hilum linear; 0.33-0.5 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 20-57.5-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets (1), or 10-14 fertile florets, or 15-16 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-11.5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets (1), or 10-14 fertile florets, or 15-16 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-11.5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong; 0.7-0.825-1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume oblong; 0.7-0.875-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (1), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse; muticous, or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid.
Distribution
Europe, or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (1).

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 20-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant; 2 -rowed. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-6 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.2-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-6 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.2-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral; persistent; shorter than spikelet; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1-5 -veined. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume oblong; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; emarginate; muticous, or mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Europe, or Africa, or Temperate Asia.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (24), or perennial (2). Culms erect (18/20), or geniculately ascending (10/20), or decumbent (9/20); slender (1/1); 3-27-115 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (6), or linear (20); firm, or flaccid (5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle (20), or composed of racemes (8); exserted (25), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (6/20), or contracted (15/20), or spiciform (1/20). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (19/20), or deciduous spikelet clusters (1/20). Racemes single (8/8); linear (6/8), or oblong (2/8), or ovate (2/8); unilateral (7/7). Rhachis angular (1/2), or semiterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (2/2); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/4), or pectinate (3/4); solitary (25), or in pairs (1), or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (25); 3 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free (24/25), or fused to each other (1/25); linear (5/19), or oblong (10/19), or clavate (4/19), or cuneate (1/19); tip rectangular (2/4), or widened (2/4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1-4-17 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (17), or obovate (2), or cuneate (23); laterally compressed; 1-8.682-21 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (25); deciduous with the pedicel (1/2), or in a cluster with fused pedicels (1/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (25/25). Floret callus brief (24), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (5/8), or pubescent (2/8), or pilose (1/8); obtuse (23), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1-4-17 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (17), or obovate (2), or cuneate (23); laterally compressed; 1-8.682-21 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (25); deciduous with the pedicel (1/2), or in a cluster with fused pedicels (1/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (25/25). Floret callus brief (24), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (5/8), or pubescent (2/8), or pilose (1/8); obtuse (23), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (25/25); shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (18), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (7), or firmer than fertile lemma (1); parallel to lemmas (25), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (15), or lanceolate (8), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); 0.02-0.3723-0.8 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (24), or chartaceous (1); without keels (17), or 1-keeled (9); 0 -veined (5), or 1 -veined (22), or 3 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (24), or distinct (2). Lower glume surface smooth (25), or scabrous (2); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/25), or acute (17/25), or acuminate (5/25), or attenuate (2/25); muticous (25), or mucronate (1), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (5), or lanceolate (23), or oblong (1); 0.3-0.8935-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (19), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (24), or membranous margins (2); without keels (14), or 1-keeled (12); 1 -veined (8/25), or 2 -veined (4/25), or 3 -veined (21/25), or 4-5 -veined (1/25). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (22/23), or ribbed (1/23). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or scabrous (3); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (11), or attenuate (7); muticous (16), or mucronate (1), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (24), or elliptic (1), or ovate (1); membranous (4), or chartaceous (21), or coriaceous (1); without keel (22), or keeled (4); 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness, or scaberulous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (18), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (4); glabrous (24), or pubescent (10). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliate (1). Lemma apex acute (2), or acuminate (14), or attenuate (10); muticous (2), or mucronate (1), or awned (25); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn 0.9-1.75-3 length of lemma. Palea 0.6-0.9594-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (22/22). Palea keels smooth (14), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (5); eciliate (25), or ciliolate (1). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (24), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (21), or distinct from fertile (7); 0-1 in number (2/7), or 2 in number (4/7), or 3 in number (6/7), or 4 in number (3/7), or 5-8 in number (1/7); barren (5/5); separate (3/7), or in a clump (4/7); linear (4/5), or lanceolate (1/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (2/7), or awned (5/7).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (1/1). Anthers 1 (13/24), or 2 (7/24), or 3 (17/24). Ovary glabrous (16/21), or pubescent on apex (5/21).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (24/24); linear (16/18), or fusiform (2/18); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1-0.1875-0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/19), or linear (18/19); 0.33-0.749-1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (15), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (13), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (2), or North America (5), or South America (6), or Antarctica (2).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Slender annuals, rarely perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, flat, convolute or involute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a ± secund contracted or spike-like panicle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–13-flowered, laterally compressed, borne upon short thickened pedicels; glumes often very unequal, narrow, the lower nerveless or 1-nerved, the upper 1–3-nerved, longer than the lower; lemmas subulate-lanceolate, rounded on the back with incurved margins, finely 5-nerved, becoming rigid, narrowed into a fine straight awn; paleas 2-keeled, narrow; stamens 1–3.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 20-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; lateral; persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 0.1-0.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 1.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate. Hilum linear; 0.33-0.66 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe, or Africa, or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia, or Australasia.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms decumbent; 30-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet, or reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume linear; 0.75 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume linear; 0.75-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; subterete; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn flexuous. Palea coriaceous. Apical sterile florets 1 in number; barren; rudimentary. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Ovary pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum linear.
Distribution
South America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms 6-30 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; tip pyriform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.8-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.2 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal. Palea gaping; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets 4-7 in number; barren; linear. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 2-3. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate; dorsally compressed. Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.66 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
South America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (7), or perennial (1). Stolons absent (7), or present (1). Culms erect (5/6), or geniculately ascending (4/6), or decumbent (1/6); 3-23.25-65 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (7). Leaf-blades stiff (2), or firm (6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (7), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted (1), or in a multilateral false spike (7); spreading; oblong (5), or cuneate (3); bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (1), or 2 fertile spikelets on each, or 3-4 fertile spikelets on each (4), or 5 fertile spikelets on each (2). Rhachis evident (5), or obsolete (3); deciduous from axis; subterete (5/5); terminating in a spikelet (1/5), or barren extension (4/5); extension subulate (3/4), or bristle-like (1/4). Raceme-bases brief (2), or filiform (2), or linear (4). Spikelets solitary (4), or in pairs (4). Fertile spikelets sessile (7), or pedicelled (1); 2 in the cluster (3/3); subequal (1/4), or the upper smaller (3/4). Pedicels linear (1/1), or oblong (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete (6), or dorsally compressed (2); 2-4.309-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete (6), or dorsally compressed (2); 2-4.309-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5), or two (5); exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2/5), or ovate (3/5); 0-0.12-0.2 length of upper glume; hyaline (5/5); without keels (3/3); 0 -veined (5/5). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/5), or distinct (2/5). Lower glume apex acute (3/3). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (5); 1-1.162-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (3). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface smooth (1), or spinose (1), or with hooked spines (6); glabrous (7), or puberulous (1), or setose (1); with simple hairs (1/2), or tubercle-based hairs (1/2). Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed (6/6); hyaline (2), or membranous (6); without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (5), or puberulous (4). Lemma apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (7); 2 -veined. Palea apex erose (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (6/6); dorsally compressed (6/6); biconvex (5/5). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bahamas, Crozet Is., Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Haiti, Jamaica, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Marion-Prince Edward, Mauritius, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is.

Festuca Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3801], Nepal K001117238
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3800], Nepal K001117237
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2852], Brazil K001077752
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3799], Nepal K001117236
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3798], Nepal K001117234
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3798], Nepal K001117235
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [128365], Brazil Vulpia K001077705

First published in Sp. Pl.: 73 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 33 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. 73 (1753)
  • St.-Yves in Candollea 4: 65 (1929).

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 33 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 73 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 33 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 73 (1753)
  • St. Yves in Rev. Bret. Bot. 2: 1 (1927)
  • in Candollea 4: 65 (1929)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0