Euplassa Salisb. ex Knight

First published in Cult. Prot.: 101 (1809)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is S. Tropical America.

Descriptions

Plana, V. & Prance, G. (2004). A Synopsis of the South American Genus Euplassa (Proteaceae). Kew Bulletin, 59(1), 27-45. doi:10.2307/4111072

Type
Type species: Euplassa meridionalis Salisb. (= Euplassa pinnata (Lam.) I. M. Johnst.)
Morphology General Habit
Trees, less frequently shrubs
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum frequently of glandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, paripinnate, the rhachis frequently ending in a terminal appendage extending up to 2 cm beyond the terminal leaflet pair, rarely forming a terminal leaflet
Morphology Leaves Leaflets
Leaflets 2 - 10 pairs, opposite to subopposite, subsessile to long-petiolate, shape various, narrowly obovate to suborbicular, the basal pair consistently smaller than the rest; margin entire to remotely serrate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence generally unbranched, pseudo-racemose, axillary or rarely terminal, solitary, occasionally with 2 inflorescences per leaf axil
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in pairs, each pair borne on a peduncle of variable length which is frequently absent; flowers sessile or pedicellate, weakly zygomorphic, each pair subtended by a small common bract
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals 4, all recurving at anthesis or one (the innermost) remaining erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, epitepalous, anthers ovate, subsessile, each enclosed in the concave distal end of a tepal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Hypogynous nectaries 4, fleshy, distinct, lobed or fused to form a quadrangular structure (or nectary disc)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary subsessile, glabrous to densely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style curved, swollen at distal end; stigma latero-apical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a nut, rarely a drupe, 1 - 2-seeded, subglobose to ovoid, outer mesocarp thin and coriaceous or thick and fleshy, inner mesocarp thin and woody or very thick and sclerous; seeds fleshy, more or less compressed, not winged.
Distribution
Occurs southwards from the state of Bolivar in Venezuela and central Colombia, to southeastern Brazil and Bolivia, throughout the entire Andes to Bolivia, and with a few representatives in the Amazon Basin, northeastern Brazil and French Guiana. This corresponds to an approximate latitudinal distribution from 6°N to 30°S. The centre of diversity is in southeastern Brazil from Minas Gerais to Paraná where about half the species occur.
Ecology
Most species are found following mountain systems at altitudes between 900 and 2500 m. Some species may be present at lower altitudes, such as those found in Amazonia or the widespread species E. inaequalis, which occurs in a variety of different habitats. Although the preferred habitat is premontane forest and cerrado (tree savanna), species of Euplassa may be found in gallery forest, cerrado (savanna woodland), cloud forest, terra firme forest (non- flooded forest), or varzea (flooded forest).
Conservation
The majority of species tend to have very localised distributions, apparently with unique populations only found in a few square kilometres.
Note
In Bolivia, a possible new species of Euplassa is known only from a single sterile specimen from the state of Yungas. In the different Brazilian states Euplassa species distribute as follow. Amapá: E. pinnata; Amazonas: E. inaequalis, E. madeirae; Bahia: E. bahiensis, E. inaequalis; Goiás: E. inaequalis; Maranhão: E. pinnata; Mato Grosso: E. inaequalis; Minas Gerais: E. inaequalis, E. incana, E. itatiaiae, E. organensis subsp. laxiflora, E. rufa, E. semicostata; Pará: E. inaequalis, E. pinnata; Paraná: E. cantareirae; Pernambuco: E. inaequalis; Piaui: E. inaequalis; Rio de Janeiro: E. legalis var. legalis, E. legalis var. villanovae, E. taubertiana, E. rufa, E. organensis subsp. organensis, E. glaziovii; São Paulo: E. cantareirae, E. hoehnei; Santa Catarina: E. cantareirae; Rio Grande do Sul: E. nebularis. In Colombia, E. duquei, E. madeirae and E. saxicola are found. In Ecuador, E. occidentalis. In French Guiana, E. pinnata. In Peru, E. inaequalis and E. isernii. In Venezuela, E. chimantensis and E. glaziovii.
[KBu]

Sources

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Bulletin

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0