Thonningia sanguinea Vahl

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Type
Lectotype, chosen by Hansen (1993), from Ghana.
Morphology General Habit
Plant to 18 cm tall Plant to 18 cm tall.
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream. Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
Ecology
Forests, thickets and adjacent savanna on a variety of hosts; 230–1676 m.
Distribution
ZAM B, ZAM W Zambia Tropical Africa down to Angola and Zambia
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent. Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age. Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age
sex Male
Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream.
sex Female
Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry. Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy. Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy.

[FTEA]

Balanophoraceae, B. Hansen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

Morphology General Habit
Tuber trailing 10–15 cm. below soil surface, 20 cm. or more long, 0.6–0.8 (1–1.5 in swollen part) cm. in diameter, minutely pilose.
Morphology Stem
Inflorescence-bearing stems appearing a few cm. above soil-surface with their bright red, flowering upper parts, 5–20 cm. long from tuber.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves triangular-ovate, lower ± 8 × 4 mm., upper 20 × 8 mm., forming an involucre around the spadix.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 2.8–3 × 3.2–3.9 cm., ♂ spadices depressed-hemispherical, ♀ spadices hemispherical.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers apparently ebracteate or ♂ subtended by minute reduced bracts. Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long. Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
sex Male
Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescence dark red, fleshy, ovoid, with spadix strongly swelling above involucre.
Figures
Fig. 2.
Habitat
In rain-forest and adjacent woodland, parasitizing roots of Funtumia africana ( Apocynaceae) , Bridelia micrantha ( Euphorbiaceae) , Acacia mildbraedii, Baphia nitida, Pentachlethra eetveldeana ( Leguminosae) , Antiaris africana ( Moraceae) , Myrianthus arboreus ( Cecropiaceae); 750–1700 m.
Distribution
K5 T1 T4 U2 U4 tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia and southwards to N. Angola and Zambia

[FWTA]

Balanophoraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncle and flower-heads with crimson or pink scales, turning brown; only creamy white pollen and anthers show in the open flower-heads
Ecology
Common in forest, rare in savannah; parasitic on many different hosts.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

Thonningia sanguinea Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 1, 2006 Onana, J.-M. [2927], Cameroon K000339023 No
Jan 1, 2004 Sidwell, K. [355], Cameroon K000461001 No
Sep 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [381], Cameroon K000008440 No
Sep 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [401], Cameroon K000008441 No
Jan 1, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1468], Cameroon K000011501 No
Jan 1, 1997 Fraser, P. [411], Cameroon K000011499 No
Jan 1, 1997 Acworth, J.M. [346], Cameroon K000011498 No
Sep 1, 1996 Sebsebe [5040], Cameroon K000008438 No
Sep 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7132], Cameroon K000008439 No
Jan 1, 1995 von Rege, I. [4], Cameroon K000011503 No
Jan 1, 1995 Akogo, M. [65], Cameroon K000519000 No
Jan 1, 1995 Hunt, L. V. [49], Cameroon K000027589 No
Jan 1, 1995 Hurst, J. [28], Cameroon K000011502 No
Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [367], Cameroon K000011500 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [5129], Ghana 17009.000 No
Wood, G.H.S. [911], Uganda 17010.000 No
Osmaston, H.A. [200], Uganda 17011.000 No
Adams, Ghana 17012.000 No
Eggeling, W.J. [4040], Uganda 17013.000 No
Fanshawe, D.B. [2228], Zimbabwe 17014.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [3875], Zambia 17565.000 No
Kalbreyer, F. [105], Nigeria 17567.000 Unknown type material No
Adams, Ghana 17568.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [3745], Zambia 17569.000 No
Small, D. [752], Sierra Leone 17570.000 No
Benton, P. [2], Ghana 18933.000 No
Thorold, C.A. [605-1949], Ghana 22048.000 No
Onochie, C.F. [35103], Nigeria 27791.000 No
Robey, M.E., Sierra Leone 35988.000 No
36622.000 No
Johnson, W.P. [521], Ghana 5186.000 Unknown type material No
Maitland, T.D. [376b], Cameroon K000180493 No
Migeod, F. [117], Cameroon K000180492 No
Monteiro, J.J., Angola Thonningia angolensis 29047.271 Unknown type material No
Dane, M.T. [16], Uganda Thonningia ugandensis 40653.000 Unknown type material No

First published in Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125 (1810)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Bullock in Kew Bull. 1948: 366, q.v. for full references and synonymy
  • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438
  • Staner in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 395.
  • in Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 368 (1986)
  • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1948: 366 (1949).
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 1: 263 (1889).
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 16b: 337, fig. 170 (1935).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Afrikas [Veg. Erde 9] 3, 1: 111, fig. 73 (1915).
  • F.C.B. 1: 395 (1948).
  • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438 (1911).
  • F.T.E.A., Balanophoraceae: 3, fig. 2 (1993). TAB. 52.
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
  • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert Thonning: 29 (1976).
  • Rev. Gén. Bot. 54: 201 (1947) as ‘coccinea’.
  • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 1: 108 (1948).
  • Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).
  • Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 338 (1974).
  • B. Hansen in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 106: 368 (1986)
  • B. Hansen in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 384 (1990).
  • Bullock in KB. 3: 366 (1949).
  • Hemsl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 438 (1911).
  • Hook.f. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
  • Staner in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 395 (1948).
  • Vahl in Skr. Naturhist-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).

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