Physalis L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is America.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, usually much-branched, sometimes woody basally.
Morphology Stem
Stems sometimes viscid, hairs simple, branched or stellate, glandular or eglandular
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, usually composed of a single flower, occasionally 2–4(–7) flowered fascicles; flowers erect to pendent, hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate to cupulate, actinomorphic with 5 lobes or 5-partite with short lobes; enlarged and persistent in fruit when basally invaginated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla broadly campanulate to rotate or funnelform, rarely urceolate, usually actinomorphic, often with dark basal spots and densely pubescent inner ring alternating with stamens internally, margin entire or tube terminating in 5 short lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, usually equal and exserted; filaments fused to lower part of corolla tube where broader, glabrous or sparsely pilose; anthers equal or unequal, oblong, bilobed, basi- or dorsi-fixed, sometimes convergent around stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, bilocular, ovules numerous, placentation axile; disc annular, occasionally absent; style filiform, usually glabrous and exserted; stigma discoid-capitate, bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry, mature pericarp thin and translucent, enclosed by enlarged and inflated accrescent chartaceous usually reticulately-veined bladder-like urceolate calyx which 5-angled or prominently 10-ribbed, sometimes with 5 basal auricles, often brightly coloured, the mouth usually almost completely closed by connivent calyx lobes or teeth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, vesicular to foveolate, sclerotic granules absent.
Note
A few species are cultivated world-wide for their ornamental showy calyces, or for their edible berries and they are collectively known as Husk-tomatoes or Ground-cherries. Hepper (in Fl. Ceylon, 4: 391 (1987)) described Physalis as being an extremely puzzling genus of considerable taxonomic and nomenclatural complexity, while Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3(2): 149 (1981)) thought that many of the nomenclatural problems would remain insoluble until African and Asian names and taxa were studied and compared with those in America. Older literature contains numerous synonyms for each of the Physalis species found in the floral region; where the names concerned have not been encountered on any East African material, they have not been included in this treatment. With the exception of P. peruviana, it is often difficult to determine which species is actually being described in many of the Floras cited, and the associated nomenclature is extremely complex. It is clearly a genus in urgent need of worldwide revision.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, glabrous or with indumentum of simple hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or paired, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, lobed, much enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate to rotate, subentire or lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included, inserted near base of corolla-tube; anthers dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with numerous ovules; style slender, stigma capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose berry surrounded by the enlarged calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, minutely pitted.
Distribution
Genus of some 100 species, the large majority in America.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Herbs or more rarely shrubs, sometimes sarmentose, glabrous to hairy; indumentum varied and often intermixed, the hairs multicellular (“jointed”) and short, unicellular, simple or occasionally stellate, often glandular or viscid, more rarely branched, also stipitate or sessile glands; rhizomatous structures sometimes present
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, alternate, sometimes 2 or 3 appearing together, one larger than the others, petiolate, entire to coarsely lobed, rarely pinnatifid Leaves solitary, alternate, sometimes 2 or 3 appearing together, one larger than the others, petiolate, entire to coarsely lobed, rarely pinnatifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, extra-axillary or appearing axillary (elsewhere occasionally up to several flowers in small, axillary fascicles or rarely in terminal pseudoracemes), actinomorphic. Flowers solitary, extra-axillary or appearing axillary (elsewhere occasionally up to several flowers in small, axillary fascicles or rarely in terminal pseudoracemes), actinomorphic; pedicel slender, often elongated and drooping or nodding in fruit; bracts obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel slender, often elongated and drooping or nodding in fruit; bracts obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often as long as the corolla tube, campanulate or sometimes tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed to sub-truncate, the lobes if present as long as or shorter than the tube, often splitting at the sutures, conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit much enlarged and usually bladdery-inflated, often splitting at the sutures, loosely enclosing it (or elsewhere nearly so), 5- or 10-angled to -ribbed, sometimes ± terete, reticulate, often invaginated basally, contracted apically with a small opening surrounded by the lobes, remaining membranous or becoming chartaceous Calyx often as long as the corolla tube, campanulate or sometimes tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed to sub-truncate, the lobes if present as long as or shorter than the tube, often splitting at the sutures, conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit much enlarged and usually bladdery-inflated, often splitting at the sutures, loosely enclosing it (or elsewhere nearly so), 5- or 10-angled to -ribbed, sometimes ± terete, reticulate, often invaginated basally, contracted apically with a small opening surrounded by the lobes, remaining membranous or becoming chartaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellowish to whitish, often blotched with 5 darker markings, campanulate, rarely infundibular-rotate (or elsewhere shortly infundibular); tube short, ± hairy inside above insertion of stamens and ± glabrous; limb plicate, subentire, sinuate, 5-angled or shortly and widely 5-lobed (to exceptionally 5-parted elsewhere), sometimes ± reflexed; lobes ovate-deltate (to subulate elsewhere), with imbricate-quincuncial aestivation Corolla yellowish to whitish, often blotched with 5 darker markings, campanulate, rarely infundibular-rotate (or elsewhere shortly infundibular); tube short, ± hairy inside above insertion of stamens and ± glabrous; limb plicate, subentire, sinuate, 5-angled or shortly and widely 5-lobed (to exceptionally 5-parted elsewhere), sometimes ± reflexed; lobes ovate-deltate (to subulate elsewhere), with imbricate-quincuncial aestivation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, mostly ± equal, usually inserted near the base of the corolla tube, ± included or slightly exserted; filaments slender (to nearly as wide as the anthers elsewhere), often ± straight, pubescent or glabrous; anthers oblong or linear-oblong to ovate in outline, straight or occasionally twisting and curling after anthesis, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens 5, mostly ± equal, usually inserted near the base of the corolla tube, ± included or slightly exserted; filaments slender (to nearly as wide as the anthers elsewhere), often ± straight, pubescent or glabrous; anthers oblong or linear-oblong to ovate in outline, straight or occasionally twisting and curling after anthesis, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, to none Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, to none.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, few–numerous in each locule on a much enlarged, subglobose placenta adnate to the dissepiment near the axis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style slender to stout.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma capitate to nearly truncate, sometimes 2-lobed to -lamellate, included or exserted
Distribution
Genus with c. 90 species, mostly centred in the warm regions of America mainly in Mexico; widely distributed in warm and temperate regions of the Old World and Australia, with several species introduced and a few widespread as weeds or in cultivation; 7 s
Morphology General Habit
Herbs or more rarely shrubs, sometimes sarmentose, glabrous to hairy; indumentum varied and often intermixed, the hairs multicellular (“jointed”) and short, unicellular, simple or occasionally stellate, often glandular or viscid, more rarely branched, also stipitate or sessile glands; rhizomatous structures sometimes present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, few–numerous in each locule on a much enlarged, subglobose placenta adnate to the dissepiment near the axis; style slender to stout; stigma capitate to nearly truncate, sometimes 2-lobed to -lamellate, included or exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit baccaceous, mostly ± globose, sessile or sometimes on a short gynobase, juicy or fleshy, often thin-walled, sometimes viscid, 2-locular. Fruit baccaceous, mostly ± globose, sessile or sometimes on a short gynobase, juicy or fleshy, often thin-walled, sometimes viscid, 2-locular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few–numerous, flattened, laterally compressed, suborbicular to reniform; testa somewhat leathery, slightly rugose or smooth, glabrous; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in a fleshy or horny endosperm, with a terete radicle as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons. Seeds few–numerous, flattened, laterally compressed, suborbicular to reniform; testa somewhat leathery, slightly rugose or smooth, glabrous; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in a fleshy or horny endosperm, with a terete radicle as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Manitoba, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Québec, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

Introduced into:

Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Easter Is., Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Physalis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Willis, F.R. [123], New Guinea 70592.000 No
Hinton, G.B. [8174], Mexico K000042324 No
Hinton, G.B. [8200], Mexico K000042325 No
Hinton, G.B. [8457], Mexico K000042327 No
Palmer, E. [165], Mexico K000042328 No
Palmer, E. [622], Mexico K000042329 No
Palmer, E. [634], Mexico K000042332 No
Palmer, E. [463], Mexico K000042337 No
Nelson, E.W. [4649], Mexico K000042338 No
Rose, J.N. [7172], Mexico K000042339 No
Balls, E.K. [B5413], Mexico K000042341 No
Palmer, E. [144], Mexico K000042345 No
Palmer, E. [220], Mexico K000042349 No
Palmer, E. [100], Mexico K000042350 No
Hinton, G.B. [4202], Mexico K000042354 No
Hinton, G.B. [4686], Mexico K000042355 No
Hinton, G.B. [6347], Mexico K000042359 No
Hinton, G.B. [8472], Mexico K000042363 No
Botteri, M. [853], Mexico K000042368 No
Coulter, T. [221], Mexico K000042372 No
Muller, N. [1336], Mexico K000042373 No
Palmer, E. [53], Mexico K000042351 No
Schaffner, J.G. [699], Mexico K000042348 No
Hinton, G.B. [13156], Mexico K000042344 No
Hinton, G.B. [6347], Mexico K000042370 No
Rico, L. [1411], Bolivia K000295481 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132461 Yes
Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132465 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132466 Yes
Palmer, E. [480], Mexico K000042366 No
Palmer, E. [379], Mexico K000042347 No
Hinton, G.B. [4686], Mexico K000042367 No
Hinton, G.B. [5823], Mexico K000042360 No
Palmer, E. [494], Mexico K000042333 No
Palmer, E. [297], Mexico K000042331 No
Balls, E.K. [B4404], Mexico K000042342 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132965 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132460 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132458 Yes
Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132459 Yes
Balls, E.K. [B4714], Mexico K000042340 No
Bourgeau, M. [3228], Mexico K000042362 No
Bourgeau, M. [2940], Mexico K000042371 No
Orcutt, C.R. [3531], Mexico K000042385 No
Hinton, G.B. [8198], Mexico K000042364 No
Hinton, G.B. [6687], Mexico K000042356 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132464 Yes
Palmer, E. [463], Mexico K000042334 No
Matuda, E. [3312], Mexico K000042335 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132463 Yes
Rovirosa, J.N. [558], Mexico K000042386 No
Hinton, G.B. [8034], Mexico K000042365 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132457 Yes
Balls, E.K. [4331], Mexico K000042285 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132462 Yes
Trail, J.W.H. [601], Brazil K001071980 Yes
Langlassé, E. [309], Mexico K000042352 No
Nelson, E.W. [6272], Mexico K000042336 No
Balls, E.K. [B4715], Mexico K000042343 No
Hinton, G.B. [11928], Mexico K000042326 No
Palmer, E. [127], Mexico K000042346 No
Hinton, G.B. [619], Mexico K000042353 No
Palmer, E. [621], Mexico K000042330 No
Hinton, G.B. [8606], Mexico Margaranthus K000063226 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 182 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 6: 140 (1909)
  • Waterfall in Rhodora 60: 107—114, 128—142, 152—173 (1958).
  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 246

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
  • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 202 (2001).
  • Sp. Pl.: 182 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1):434 (1852);
  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 85 (1754);
  • Gen. Solanaceae: 202–208 (2001)
  • Rhodora 60: 107–114, 128–142, 152–173 (1958)
  • Rhodora 69: 82–120, 203–239, 319–329 (1967);
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 182 (1753)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images