Polygala Tourn. ex L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FTEA]

Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

Note
A cosmopolititan genus with about 750 species, widespread mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. The genus is divided into several subgenera, but the African species belong to the subgenus Polygala, with the exception of three species from NW Africa [( P. munbyana Boiss. (Algeria and Morocco), P. webbiana Coss. (Morocco) and P. balansae Coss. (Morocco)], which belong to subgenus Chamaebuxus (DC.) Rchb. Species 1–6 belong to the section Timutua DC., 7 to Leptaleae (Chodat) Paiva, 8–32 to Blepharidium DC., 33–42 to Tetrasepalae (Chodat) Paiva, 43 to Conospermae (Chodat) Paiva, 44–47 to Chloropterae (Chodat) Paiva and 48–50 to Megatropis Paiva.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, shrublets, shrubs, rarely small trees (or woody climbers in Madagascar)
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate, sometimes in basal leaf-rosettes, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, usually linear to lanceolate, exstipulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in several-flowered, terminal, axillary or pseudolateral racemes, secondarily spiciform or corymbiform, rarely solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, unequal, 3 external, persistent (caducous in some American subgenera), 2 anterior (inferior) alike, free, sometimes united and 1 superior larger; 2 internal (lateral) ones larger and petaloid (wing-sepals)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3(5), the 2 lateral ones usually absent or vestigial, the 2 upper ones joined at the base to the lower one (keel or carina ), keel-shaped and often fringed (crested); crest fimbriate or plurilobed, rarely without the crest
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 8 (exceptionally 9–10), united into a slit tube, sometimes 6 fertile and 2 staminodes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular, sessile, sometimes shortly stalked; stigma 2-branched or 2-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, usually flattened, 2-locular, 2-seeded, usually winged
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often hairy, with a silky indumentum, rarely glabrous or with glochidiate hairs, usually with a 3-lobed or 3-branched caruncle, often with 3 membranous appendages.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrublets, shrubs or small trees
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in racemes, subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers papilionaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, the 2 lateral inner ones (wings) larger than the others and petaloid, the 2 lower ones sometimes connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3(–5), joined, the lowermost one forming a keel, usually with a fringed appendage at the tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 6 or 8
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule flattened, 2-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually silky-hairy and with a 2–3-lobed caruncle, lobes often with tips expanded into appendages.
Distribution
Over 600 species, almost cosmopolitan.

[FZ]

Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, shrublets or perennial or annual herbs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate (in our species) and very shortly petiolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomoric, papilionaceous, in terminal or lateral racemes or rarely solitary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals unequal, the three outer ones usually sepaloid and the two inner ones (wings) larger and petaloid, all free or the two anterior ones united.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3 (5) the lowest forming the carina (usually crested), the two lateral ones usually vestigial or absent, the two upper ones joined at the base to the carina.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens 8 (rarely 9, 4 or 5) sometimes only 6 fertile with 2 staminodes, monadelphous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule flattened, 2-locular, 2-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually with a caruncle and with a silky indumentum (rarely glabrous or with glochidiate hairs).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Føroyar, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bismarck Archipelago, California, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Marianas, Marquesas, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Is., Oregon, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., St.Helena, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington

Polygala Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [25812], Brazil K001133800 Yes
Collenette [2351], Malaysia 54047.000 No
Rico, L. [1290], Bolivia K000295038 No
Rico, L. [1738], Armenia K000297302 No
Rico, L. [2039], Mexico K000266010 No
Christenhuis, M.J.M. [6815], Romania K000696728 No
Prance, G.T. [P/25047], Brazil K001133785 Yes
Prance, G.T. [2467], Brazil K001133794 Yes
Giulietti, A.M. [1265], Brazil K001133803 Yes
Stannard, B. [PCD5533], Brazil K001133804 Yes
Harley, R.M. [15026], Brazil K001133806 Yes
Pirani, J.R. [1874], Brazil K001133788 Yes
Bau, B.B. [LAE 88471], New Guinea K000764369 No
Giulietti, A.M. [3251], Brazil K001133792 Yes
Eiten, G. [10081], Brazil K001133781 Yes
Brooks, R.R. [535], Brazil K001133796 Yes
Rico, L. [1735], Armenia K000297307 No
Irwin, H.S. [34760], Brazil K001133805 Yes
Lüdtke, R. [122], Brazil K001133799 Yes
Prance, G.T. [8473], Brazil K001133809 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [36334], Brazil K001133789 Yes
Mueller, F. [419], Brazil K001133782 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [1397], Cameroon K000106224 No
Brunt, M.A. [554], Cameroon K000106228 No
Coradin, L. [6105], Brazil K001133801 Yes
Lewis, G.P. [886], Brazil K001130003 Yes
Harley, R.M. [54869], Brazil K001133807 Yes
Rico, L. [2265], Syria K000764209 No
Brooks, R.R. [503], Brazil K001133797 Yes
Rico, L. [1602], Bolivia K000295222 No
Rico, L. [1419], Bolivia K000295407 No
Giulietti, A.M. [1556], Brazil K001133786 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [2792], Brazil K001133798 Yes
Lucas, E.J. [587], Brazil K001130007 Yes
Prance, G.T. [25028], Brazil K001133784 Yes
Eiten, G. [6187], Brazil K001133787 Yes
Gasson, P. [6055], Brazil K001133783 Yes
Rico, L. [1590], Bolivia K000295202 No
Irwin, H.S. [32707], Brazil K001133790 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [3004], Brazil K001133793 Yes
Martius [1191], Brazil K001133791 Yes
Rico, L. [1795], Armenia K000297290 No
Harley, R. [PCD3281], Brazil K001133802 Yes
Labat, J.N. [3632], Madagascar K001208116 No
Harley, R.M. [25698a], Brazil K001133808 Yes
Figueiredo, C. [946], Brazil K001133795 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 701 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chodat Monogr. Polygal. 1 (1891) .1
  • —F.T.A. 1: 125

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 315 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 701 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Paiva in Fontqueria 50 (1998).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fontqueria 50: I–VI, 1–346, tab. 1–52 (1998)
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 701 (1753) & Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 315 (1754)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/