Lantana L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropical & Subtropical America, Africa to Thailand.

Descriptions

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, subshrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4, usually toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in heads or spikes, each flower subtended by a bract
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx truncate to shallowly toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Tube cylindric; limb slightly 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, included
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, each cell with 1 basal ovule; stigma oblique
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a ± fleshy drupe with hard endocarp, 2-celled or splitting into 2 stones at maturity.
Distribution
Some 125 species, the majority in tropical and subtropical America, a few in the Old World.
[FSOM]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Erect, scandent or occasionally prostrate herbs or shrubs, with usually tomentose, scabrid-hairy or sparsely to densely prickly stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(–4), mostly aromatic, usually toothed, often ± bullate or rugose, usually glandular-punctate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sessile in often colourful, usually axillary, pedunculate heads or spike-like inflorescences, each flower subtended by an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, membranous, truncate or sinuate-dentate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilisation, salver-shaped with narrowly cylindrical tube; limb obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed, the lobes obtuse or even emarginate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted at middle of tube, included
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular with 1 basal erect ovule per locule; style short, with ± thick oblique or sublateral stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Axis of fruiting spike with scars ± scattered, not close as in Lippia Drupes with ± fleshy mesocarp, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular or splitting into 2 1-locular pyrenes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds without albumen.
[FTEA]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1-carpellate; carpel 2-locular; ovules 1 per locule, basal, erect or attached laterally near the base; style undivided with a somewhat thick, oblique or sublateral stigma
Note
Biegel, Check-list Ornam. Pl. Rhod. Parks & Gard. [Rhodesia Agric. J., Research Report No. 3]: 69 (1977), has recorded the following as cultivated garden ornamentals in Zimbabwe: Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (syn. L. sellowiana Link & Otto).  A slender, much branched trailing or procumbent subshrub with rosy-lilac or violet flowers in flattish spikes on peduncles much exceeding the leaves. Usually grown as a bedding plant or ground cover.  No specimens have been seen from the Flora Zambesiaca area.   Drap d’Or , a sterile cultivar of L. camara , with golden yellow flowers, grown in Zimbabwe gardens.  It has not become naturalized.  No specimens have been seen from the Flora Zambesiaca area. Species are notoriously difficult to determine because of the great variation exhibited, and hybridization is apparently very widespread.   See R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 125–214 (1989), for discussion of problematic taxa and also of misidentifications by Moldenke (who subsequently misidentified taxa he had previously described from single specimens at intervals).
Distribution
A genus of about 270 specific and infraspecific taxa (fide Moldenke ), mostly native to subtropical and tropical America, with a few in the Old World tropics.  Several species are widely cultivated as garden ornamentals and there are numerous culti
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, usually erect, sometimes scandent, rarely procumbent. Shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, usually erect, sometimes scandent, rarely procumbent
Morphology Stem
Stems and branches tomentose, scabrid hairy, or sparsely to densely armed with prickles. Stems and branches tomentose, scabrid hairy, or sparsely to densely armed with prickles
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum usually of simple appressed or spreading hairs, gland-tipped hairs sometimes also present; young parts and leaf lower surface usually glandular-punctate. Indumentum usually of simple appressed or spreading hairs, gland-tipped hairs sometimes also present; young parts and leaf lower surface usually glandular-punctate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(4), usually decussate, simple, usually petiolate, mostly aromatic; lamina usually serrate or crenate, often ± bullate or rugose. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(4), usually decussate, simple, usually petiolate, mostly aromatic; lamina usually serrate or crenate, often ± bullate or rugose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually axillary, pedunculate, spicate; spikes densely cylindrical or subspherical; bracts small. Inflorescences usually axillary, pedunculate, spicate; spikes densely cylindrical or subspherical; bracts small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, each sessile in the axil of an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract. Flowers small, each sessile in the axil of an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, ± tubular and shorter than the corolla tube, truncate to entire or sinuate-dentate, membranous, whitish. Calyx small, ± tubular and shorter than the corolla tube, truncate to entire or sinuate-dentate, membranous, whitish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small, hypocrateriform, red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with the throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilization; tube slender, cylindrical or enlarging above middle; limb spreading, obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed with lobes obtuse to emarginate. Corolla small, hypocrateriform, red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with the throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilization; tube slender, cylindrical or enlarging above middle; limb spreading, obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed with lobes obtuse to emarginate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, included; filaments short, inserted ± at middle of corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae. Stamens 4, included; filaments short, inserted ± at middle of corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1-carpellate; carpel 2-locular; ovules 1 per locule, basal, erect or attached laterally near the base; style undivided with a somewhat thick, oblique or sublateral stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit drupaceous; mesocarp ± fleshy, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular, not splitting into 2 pyrenes. Fruit drupaceous; mesocarp ± fleshy, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular, not splitting into 2 pyrenes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds without endosperm. Seeds without endosperm.
[FZ]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology General Habit
Erect, scrambling or climbing shrubs, always more or less aromatic, the stems 4-angled, ribbed or subcylindrical, sometimes armed with prickles; leaves opposite or whorled, more or less toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower in dense, stalked, axillary heads or contracted spikes, with or without a subtending involucre of bracts; inner bracts (subtending individual flowers) also present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx membranous, truncate, sinuate or minutely 2–4-toothed, enlarging in fruit; corolla with slender, often curved tube and 4–5 lobes, one larger than the others
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, in 2 pairs inserted at different levels, included; anthers ovate, parallel-celled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled with 1 ovule in each cavity
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a small, globose, juicy drupe, the stone 2-celled or separating into 2 1-seeded nutlets; seeds without endosperm.
[Cayman]

Timothy M. A. Utteridge and Laura V. S. Jennings (2022). Trees of New Guinea. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Distribution
A genus of 55 species from tropical and subtropical America and Africa. Two species, Lantana camara L. and L. trifolia L., have been introduced to New Guinea and are grown as ornamentals.
Ecology
Both species are naturalised and the former species is considered a noxious weed. Common in open vegetation, sometimes grown as an ornamental.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial shrubs or sub-shrubs (sometimes forming dense thickets) 2–3(–12) m; stems often with prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, usually toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of dense capitate heads or dense cylindrical spikes; bracts linear to broad-triangular, sometimes forming an involucre, usually conspicuous; flowers sessile; calyx tubular, truncate or shallowly lobed; corolla variously coloured, limb spreading, 2-lipped, 4-lobed; fertile stamens 4, inserted at the middle of tube; style short with thick capitate stigma; ovary 2-locular with 1 ovule per locule, ovules 8
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe, black or dark purple when mature, slightly fleshy.
Recognition
Lantana can be recognised by the stems with prickles, the dense capitate heads or dense cylindrical spikes, and the fleshy purple or black drupes; the corolla colour is often different even in the same inflorescence.
[TONG]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0