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This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil to NE. Argentina.
Cestrum laevigatum Schltdl

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Erect to drooping, often with a scandent tendency, shrub or small tree up to 4 (said to grow to 10) m, glabrous apart from fine pubescence on the youngest parts Erect to drooping, often with a scandent tendency, shrub or small tree up to 4 (said to grow to 10) m, glabrous apart from fine pubescence on the youngest parts.
Morphology Branches
Branches angular at first, ± dark brownish-grey to pale grey, with unpleasant odour when bruised Branches angular at first, ± dark brownish-grey to pale grey, with unpleasant odour when bruised.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, scattered, spreading or hanging down; petiole 0.5–2.5 cm long; lamina membranous or thinly leathery, 3–20 × 1. 3–7 cm, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, base rounded to acute, ± equal-sided to slightly unequal-sided at the base and scarcely decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or slightly acuminate, occasionally sub-obtuse, ± entire, minutely revolute, both surfaces glabrous and slightly reticulate-venose, with 5–12 pairs of lateral nerves prominent beneath; stipuliform leaves 0.4–2 × 0.15–0.7 cm, ± lanceolate, acute, shortly petiolate, deciduous Leaves solitary, scattered, spreading or hanging down; petiole 0.5–2.5 cm long; lamina membranous or thinly leathery, 3–20 × 1.3–7 cm, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, base rounded to acute, ± equal-sided to slightly unequal-sided at the base and scarcely decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or slightly acuminate, occasionally sub-obtuse, ± entire, minutely revolute, both surfaces glabrous and slightly reticulate-venose, with 5–12 pairs of lateral nerves prominent beneath; stipuliform leaves 0.4–2 × 0.15–0.7 cm, ± lanceolate, acute, shortly petiolate, deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2–4(5) mm long, 1. 2–2.5 mm wide, tubular to sub-campanulate, 5-nerved and 5-dentate, glandular or slightly puberulous outside, puberulous inside; teeth subequal, 0.5 × 1. 5 mm, broadly triangular, acute, ciliolate Calyx 2–4(5) mm long, 1.2–2.5 mm wide, tubular to sub-campanulate, 5-nerved and 5-dentate, glandular or slightly puberulous outside, puberulous inside; teeth subequal, 0.5 × 1.5 mm, broadly triangular, acute, ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish to yellowish-white or yellowish, 16–24 mm long, tubular to infundibuliform, constricted at the throat, glabrous; limb 3–10 mm across, 5(6)-parted; lobes 3–6 × 1. 5–2.7 mm, ovate- or elliptic-lanceolate, sub-acute or obtuse, finely hairy outside along the margins Corolla greenish to yellowish-white or yellowish, 16–24 mm long, tubular to infundibuliform, constricted at the throat, glabrous; limb 3–10 mm across, 5(6)-parted; lobes 3–6 × 1.5–2.7 mm, ovate- or elliptic-lanceolate, sub-acute or obtuse, finely hairy outside along the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5(6), unequal to subequal, included; filaments inserted at two thirds or higher in the corolla tube, free for 2.5–5 mm, glabrous, straight, smooth, edentate, sometimes somewhat bearded on the part above the middle of the tube; anthers red or brownish, 0.7–0.8 × 0.3–0.5 mm, ± widely ellipsoid or subrounded Stamens 5(6), unequal to subequal, included; filaments inserted at two thirds or higher in the corolla tube, free for 2.5–5 mm, glabrous, straight, smooth, edentate, sometimes somewhat bearded on the part above the middle of the tube; anthers red or brownish, 0.7–0.8 × 0.3–0.5 mm, ± widely ellipsoid or subrounded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary on an attenuate and thick stipe, 1. 3–2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, ovoid to obovoid, glabrous, 7–14-ovulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 13–15 mm long, filiform but somewhat thickened distally and slightly puberulous, included
Ecology
Riverine forest in gorges, dune bushland or woods at seaside, also cultivated; sea level to 1006 m .
Note
Poisonous. Common name: “Ink-berry” or “Poisonous-berry”.
Distribution
Mozambique ZAM S, ZIM W, MOZ M Zambia Zimbabwe Originally from Brazil and Paraguay and now widely cultivated and naturalized; in Africa also recorded from Canary, Bioko and S. Tomé Islands, eastern South Africa and Swaziland.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences numerous, mostly axillary, contracted but compound and leafy, racemiform-spiciform, 2–20 mm long, 2–10-flowered, with generally several flowers crowded at the top; peduncle 0.5–11 mm long; bracts 2–15 × 0.1–4 mm, oblong or lanceolate to oblanceolate or obovate, acute to rounded, glabrous or with glandular hairs mainly at the margins and towards the base, deciduous; pedicels up to 1(2) mm long. Inflorescences numerous, mostly axillary, contracted but compound and leafy, racemiform-spiciform, 2–20 mm long, 2–10-flowered, with generally several flowers crowded at the top; peduncle 0.5–11 mm long; bracts 2–15 × 0.1–4 mm, oblong or lanceolate to oblanceolate or obovate, acute to rounded, glabrous or with glandular hairs mainly at the margins and towards the base, deciduous; pedicels up to 1(2) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary on an attenuate and thick stipe, 1.3–2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, ovoid to obovoid, glabrous, 7–14-ovulate; style 13–15 mm long, filiform but somewhat thickened distally and slightly puberulous, included.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit shining dark purple to violaceous-blue or blackish, 10–12 × 4–6 mm, ovoid or ellipsoid, glabrous. Fruit shining dark purple to violaceous-blue or blackish, 10–12 × 4–6 mm, ovoid or ellipsoid, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few, 3.5–5.5 × 1.5–2.4 × 0.7–1 mm, convex dorsally, canaliculate on the internal face, linear-oblong in outline. Seeds few, 3.5–5.5 × 1. 5–2.4 × 0.7–1 mm, convex dorsally, canaliculate on the internal face, linear-oblong in outline

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay

Introduced into:

Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, St.Helena, Swaziland, Trinidad-Tobago, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Cestrum laevigatum Schltdl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 11, 2007 Claro, K.D. [20828], Brazil K001073216
Oct 11, 2007 Barbosa, V.P. [M54], Brazil K001073217
Jan 1, 2000 Burchell [1463], Brazil K000197110
Vasconcellos-Neto, J. [20211], Brazil K001073218
Brazil Cestrum laevigatum var. collinum K000449019 isotype
Brazil Cestrum laevigatum var. collinum K000449020 isotype
Sep 17, 2013 Vauthier, A.-C. [121], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847894
Maas, P.J.M. [3152], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847875
Plowman, T. [2791], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847879
Vasconcellos-Neto, J. [21588], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847884
Tessmann, G. [6131], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847887
Martius [s.n.], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847889
Glaziou [5963], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847876
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000964674
Rocha, R.F.A. [256], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847893
Heringer, E.P. [6999], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847888
Plowman, T. [2929], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847883
Mexia, Y.E.J. [4483], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847873
Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [1403], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847872
Harley, R.M. [17248], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847891
Gardner [1369], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847890
Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M73], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847886
Glaziou [11358], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847874
Glaziou [9550], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847882
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847881
Glaziou [13089], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847878
Miers, J. [3634], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847877
Harley, R.M. [17248], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847892
Burchell [8032], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847880
Dias, H. [68], Brazil Cestrum axillare K000847885
Jan 1, 2000 Hassler, E. [10963], Paraguay Cestrum laevigatum var. paraguayense K000585196 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2000 Hassler, E. [11520], Paraguay Cestrum laevigatum var. paraguayense K000585197 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2000 Hassler, E. [11520], Paraguay Cestrum laevigatum var. paraguayense K000585198 isosyntype

First published in Linnaea 7: 59 (1832)

Accepted by

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 643 (1852).
  • Bates, Ingram & Moore (eds.), Hortus Third: 253 (1976).
  • Candollea 6: 297 (1935).
  • Linnaea 7: 58 (1832).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 141 (1986).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 177 (1987). TAB. 1.
  • Vahrmeijer, Pois. Pl. South. Africa: 124 cum fig. (1981).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 944 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/