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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific, S. Central & SE. U.S.A. to Cuba.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (2), or perennial (46). Rhizomes absent (38), or short (9), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (47), or present (1). Culms erect (32/34), or geniculately ascending (6/34); robust (2/4), or slender (2/4); 10-101.1-300 cm long; firm (46), or wiry (2). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (4/7), or sparse (2/7), or ample (2/7), or fastigiate (1/7). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (46), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (47), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (10), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (31). Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or filiform (2), or linear (46), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (47), or coriaceous (1); stiff (15), or firm (33). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; terminal (47), or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (40), or contracted (10). Primary panicle branches not whorled (15), or whorled at lower nodes (4), or whorled at most nodes (31). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (36), or few fertile spikelets (12), or many spikelets (5); 1 fertile spikelets on each (36/45), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (7/45), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (11/45), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (7/45), or 5 fertile spikelets on each (6/45), or 6 fertile spikelets on each (4/45), or 7 fertile spikelets on each (2/45), or 8-13 fertile spikelets on each (1/45). Rhachis evident (19), or obsolete (33); tough (31), or fragile at the nodes (17); flattened (2/2). Rhachis internodes indefinite (2/19), or filiform (12/19), or linear (5/19). Rhachis internode tip transverse (4/15), or oblique (12/15); flat (1/5), or cupuliform (4/5). Raceme-bases brief (34), or filiform (14). Spikelets appressed (11/11); in pairs (17), or in threes (36). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (17), or 2 in the cluster (36). Pedicels filiform (14), or linear (34).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (1), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (47); persistent (1), or separately deciduous (47). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (25/44), or mucronate (3/44), or awned (21/44). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (17), or elliptic (3), or oblong (23); laterally compressed (46), or subterete (2); 3.32-6.812-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (5), or oblong (5), or cuneate (29), or linear (9); glabrous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (17), or bearded (23); base truncate (1/45), or obtuse (12/45), or acute (10/45), or pungent (22/45); attached obliquely (14/18), or inserted (4/18).
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (1), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (47); persistent (1), or separately deciduous (47). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (25/44), or mucronate (3/44), or awned (21/44).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (17), or elliptic (3), or oblong (23); laterally compressed (46), or subterete (2); 3.32-6.812-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (5), or oblong (5), or cuneate (29), or linear (9); glabrous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (17), or bearded (23); base truncate (1/45), or obtuse (12/45), or acute (10/45), or pungent (22/45); attached obliquely (14/18), or inserted (4/18).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reaching apex of florets (12), or exceeding apex of florets (36); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (1), or lanceolate (21), or elliptic (2), or oblong (26); chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (30), or coriaceous (16); without keels; 3 -veined (3/23), or 4 -veined (6/23), or 5 -veined (18/23), or 6 -veined (10/23), or 7 -veined (12/23), or 8 -veined (2/23), or 9 -veined (1/23). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (46). Lower glume surface smooth (24), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (7), or spinose (16), or tuberculate (1), or muricate (2); glabrous (34), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or hispidulous (10), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex entire (46), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (7/7); emarginate (2/14), or truncate (5/14), or obtuse (3/14), or acute (4/14), or attenuate (1/14); muticous (45), or mucronate (6), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (40), or elliptic (1), or oblong (8); chartaceous (9/17), or cartilaginous (2/17), or coriaceous (6/17); with undifferentiated margins (45), or hyaline margins (3); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (47); 3 -veined (14/14), or 4-5 -veined (7/14). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (37), or ciliolate (8), or ciliate (4), or pectinately ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Upper glume surface smooth (41), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (6); glabrous (43), or puberulous (2), or pilose (3), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex entire (46), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (3/15), or truncate (1/15), or obtuse (8/15), or acute (1/15), or acuminate (2/15), or setaceously attenuate (1/15); muticous (10), or mucronate (10), or awned (38); 1 -awned (36/37), or 2 -awned (1/37).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male (1), or barren (47); with palea (1), or without significant palea (47). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (23/47), or elliptic (1/47), or oblong (18/47), or obovate (5/47); 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (1/39), or 2 -veined (36/39), or 3 -veined (3/39); emarginate (2/6), or truncate (1/6), or obtuse (2/6), or acute (2/6). Fertile lemma linear (15), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (34); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (4/23), or 1 -veined (9/23), or 3 -veined (10/23). Lemma lateral veins extending close to apex (1/1). Lemma margins eciliate (43), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (13), or dentate (36); 2 -fid (36/36); emarginate (2/4), or acute (1/4), or acuminate (1/4); muticous (2), or awned (46); 1 -awned (46/46). Principal lemma awn apical (10/46), or from a sinus (37/46); straight (5/46), or curved (1/46), or flexuous (5/46), or geniculate (37/46). Column of lemma awn glabrous (11/39), or hispidulous (2/39), or puberulous (15/39), or pubescent (14/39). Palea present (25), or absent or minute (23); 0.3-0.4313-0.8 length of lemma; hyaline (11/25), or membranous (14/25); 0 -veined (11/12), or 1 -veined (2/12), or 2 -veined (3/12); without keels (9/25), or 2-keeled (16/25). Palea surface glabrous (24/25), or puberulous (2/25).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (10/10); truncate (1/1). Anthers 2 (2/26), or 3 (26/26).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (13/13); fusiform (1/3), or oblong (2/3).
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (34), or Australasia (10), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (3).

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Caespitose perennials, sometimes rhizomatous; leaf sheaths sometimes keeled, the basal flabellate-imbricate; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs; leaf laminas flat or conduplicate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle, its primary branches whorled, simple; racemes 1–many-jointed; pedicels linear, filiform, never longitudinally grooved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet male or neuter. Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, its callus elongated and obtuse to pungent, often large and conical; glumes subequal, unequally awned or awnless; inferior glume chartaceous to coriaceous, often spinulose on the keels and muricate or mammilate on the back; superior lemma entire or bilobed, awned or awnless; awn glabrous to pubescent and usually prominent.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennials; leaves linear, often harsh and glaucous; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal panicle with whorls of slender branches bearing terminal racemes; racemes reduced to a triad of 1 sessile and 2 pedicelled spikelets with linear pedicels, often the sessile spikelet pallid with fulvous callus-beard, and the pedicelled spikelet purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelets male or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awned or awnless. Sessile spikelet ± laterally compressed; callus elongated, acute to pungent; lower glume cartilaginous, rounded on the back, sometimes spinulose on the margins; upper glume often awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, 2-toothed or entire, with a glabrous or pubescent awn
Distribution
Around 50 species in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, mainly in Asia and Australia; one species in the New World.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennials, mostly tufted
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, often harsh and glaucous; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal panicle with whorls of slender persistent branches bearing terminal racemes; each raceme reduced to a triad of 1 sessile and 2 pedicelled spikelets with linear pedicels (rarely an additional pair of spikelets present), commonly the sessile spikelet pallid or yellowish with fulvous callus-beard and the pedicelled spikelet purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet ± laterally compressed; callus oblique, obtuse to pungent; lower glume cartilaginous, rounded on the back, sometimes spinulose on the margins; upper glume often awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate or entire, with a glabrous or pubescent awn Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awned or awnless.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet ± laterally compressed; callus oblique, obtuse to pungent; lower glume cartilaginous, rounded on the back, sometimes spinulose on the margins; upper glume often awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate or entire, with a glabrous or pubescent awn
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awned or awnless.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Coarse perennials forming large clumps from stout rhizomes
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, firm to hard, the basal sheaths laterally compressed and keeled; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal panicle with whorls of numerous slender racemes; racemes fragile, composed of several to many spikelets, the internodes and pedicels linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, linear to lanceolate; callus rounded and ± truncate or oblique and pungent; lower glume coriaceous to chartaceous, rounded on the back, spinulose; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous geniculate awn from the sinus, the awn sometimes reduced or absent
Sessile
Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, linear to lanceolate; callus rounded and ± truncate or oblique and pungent; lower glume coriaceous to chartaceous, rounded on the back, spinulose; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous geniculate awn from the sinus, the awn sometimes reduced or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong, Pedicelled spikelet ♂, similar to the sessile but smaller.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicobar Is., Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Réunion, St.Helena, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Chrysopogon Trin. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8792], India K001131654
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8786], Nepal K001131645
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131641
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8787], Myanmar K001131646
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131643
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131642
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8788] K001131648
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8787], Myanmar K001131647
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8784] K001131640
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8792], Nepal K001131653
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8790], Nepal K001131650
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8792] K001131655
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8782] K001131638
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131644
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8791], Nepal K001131651
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8782] K001131637
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8789], India K001131649
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8781] K001131636
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8783] K001131639
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8792], India K001131652

First published in Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 9: 159 (1917), nom. cons.
  • Fund. Agrost. 187 (1820)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820), nom. conserv.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820), nom. conserv.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0