Sorghum Moench

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Caucasus to Central Asia and Pacific.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (20), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (25), or short (3), or elongated (4). Culms erect (20/20), or geniculately ascending (4/20), or decumbent (1/20); robust (5/5), or of moderate stature (1/5); 25-180.2-600 cm long; firm (30), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (14/15), or with prop roots (11/15). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3), or flush with internodes (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (6/8), or sparse (6/8). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (30), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (16), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (30). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; terminal, or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (28), or contracted (4). Primary panicle branches not whorled (19), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (10); without sterile bristles (30), or sterile at lowest node (1). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (7), or few fertile spikelets (20), or many spikelets (7); 1-4-21 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis evident (28), or obsolete (6); tough (6), or fragile at the nodes (26). Rhachis internodes filiform (14/28), or linear (15/28). Rhachis internode tip transverse (19/28), or oblique (9/28); cupuliform (14/14). Spikelets appressed (5/5); in pairs (28), or in threes (7). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (26), or 2 in the cluster (8). Pedicels filiform (30), or linear (1).
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (1), or well-developed (30); persistent (5/30), or separately deciduous (26/30). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (29/30), or square (1/30). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (29/30), or mucronate (2/30), or awned (2/30).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (15), or oblong (6), or ovate (5), or orbicular (1), or obovate (5), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 3-8.161-20 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (29); deciduous with accessory branch structures (29/29). Spikelet callus brief (19), or square (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8), or linear (2); glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (5/18), or pilose (7/18), or bearded (6/18); base truncate (1), or obtuse (21), or pungent (10); attached obliquely (2/2). Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (1), or well-developed (30); persistent (5/30), or separately deciduous (26/30). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (29/30), or square (1/30). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (29/30), or mucronate (2/30), or awned (2/30).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (15), or oblong (6), or ovate (5), or orbicular (1), or obovate (5), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 3-8.161-20 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (29); deciduous with accessory branch structures (29/29). Spikelet callus brief (19), or square (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8), or linear (2); glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (5/18), or pilose (7/18), or bearded (6/18); base truncate (1), or obtuse (21), or pungent (10); attached obliquely (2/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas, or gaping (1). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (4), or oblong (1), or ovate (25); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (23), or 2-keeled (8); wingless (29), or winged on keel (2); 5-9-20 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (30), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (30), or flat (1); smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (13), or pilose (12), or villous (5), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex entire (22), or dentate (10); 2 -fid (4/10), or 3 -fid (6/10); emarginate (1/20), or truncate (1/20), or obtuse (3/20), or acute (14/20), or rostrate (3/20); muticous (30), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (28); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (29), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (30), or winged on margins (1); 5 -veined (8/20), or 6 -veined (7/20), or 7 -veined (19/20), or 8-9 -veined (3/20), or 10-11 -veined (1/20). Upper glume lateral veins without cross-veins (1/4), or with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (14), or pilose (9), or villous (2); with simple hairs (21/22), or tubercle-based hairs (2/22). Upper glume apex entire (30), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); truncate (1/11), or obtuse (3/11), or acute (6/11), or acuminate (2/11), or setaceously attenuate (2/11); muticous, or mucronate (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (17), or elliptic (13), or oblong (1); hyaline; 2 -veined (30/30), or 3-5 -veined (1/30); acute (19/19). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (19), or ovate (8), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed (2/2); hyaline; 1 -veined (30), or 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (2). Lemma surface glabrous (30), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate (13), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (15). Lemma apex entire (3), or dentate (21), or lobed (10); 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.2817-0.33 of lemma length; muticous (7), or awned (30); 1 -awned (30/30). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (30/30); geniculate (30/30). Column of lemma awn glabrous (17/30), or pubescent (11/30), or ciliate (3/30). Palea present (4), or absent or minute (27); hyaline (1/4), or membranous (3/4); 0 -veined (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (29/29); fleshy (19/19); glabrous (7/29), or ciliate (26/29). Anthers 3 (26/26). Stigmas 2 (19/19). Ovary glabrous (6/8), or pubescent on apex (2/8).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (25/25); ellipsoid (7/17), or oblong (4/17), or ovoid (1/17), or obovoid (12/17); isodiametric (1/7), or dorsally compressed (5/7), or flattened (1/7); apex umbonate (1/1). Embryo 0.5-0.55-0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/3).
Distribution
Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (14), or Australasia (23), or Pacific (6), or North America (5), or South America (6).

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Inflorescence a large panicle, its primary branches simple or subdivided, bearing short dense racemes with pilose internodes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, or reduced to the inferior glume. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse or pungent; inferior glume cartilaginous, convex on the back, rounded on the flanks but becoming 2-keeled near the apex, usually pilose; superior lemma awned or awnless.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials, mostly robust, with or without rhizomes; ligule membranous or scarious, rarely a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a large terminal panicle with persistent branches bearing short fragile (except in cultivated species) racemes, these with paired dissimilar spikelets, one sessile, the other pedicelled; internodes and pedicels filiform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex across the back, becoming 2-keeled and narrowly winged near the tip, usually hairy; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, 2-toothed, with a glabrous awn from the sinus, or awnless Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, linear-lanceolate to subulate, usually much narrower than the sessile and awnless.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis obovoid, dorsally compressed
Distribution
Some 28 species in the Old World tropics and subtropics.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials, mostly robust, with or without rhizomes
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, often broad; ligule membranous or scarious, rarely a line of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a large terminal panicle, with tough persistent branches bearing short fragile (except in cultivated species) racemes; internodes and pedicels filiform
Sessile
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse, rarely pungent; lower glume ± coriaceous, broadly convex across the back, becoming 2-keeled and narrowly winged near the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous awn from the sinus, sometimes entire and muticous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis mostly obovoid, dorsally compressed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, mostly linear-lanceolate to subulate, usually much narrower than the sessile and awnless. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse, rarely pungent; lower glume ± coriaceous, broadly convex across the back, becoming 2-keeled and narrowly winged near the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous awn from the sinus, sometimes entire and muticous
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, mostly linear-lanceolate to subulate, usually much narrower than the sessile and awnless.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Amur, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kriti, Krym, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Sorghum Moench appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sudan K000280783
Sudan K000280782
Hinton, G.B. [5552], Guerrero K000476337
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8779] K001131631
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8779], Myanmar K001131632

First published in Methodus: 207 (1794)

Accepted by

  • (2020). oi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.29.226753 epublication.
  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 9: 104 (1917)
  • Meth. 207 (1794)
  • Snowden in J. Linn. Soc. 55: 191 (1955), nom. cons.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • C.E. Hubbard in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3364 (1938).
  • Celarier in Cytologia 23: 395–418 (1959).
  • Garber in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 23: 283–361 (1950).
  • Ivanyukovich & Doronina in Trudy Prikl. Bot. 69: 18–27 (1980).
  • Methodus: 207 (1794) nom. conserv.
  • Setshogo in Kirkia 17: 138 (2001).
  • Snowden in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 55: 191–260 (1955).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • C.E. Hubbard in Hook., Ic. Pl. 34, fig. 3364 (1938)
  • Celarier in Cytologia 23: 395–418 (1959), nom. conserv.
  • Garber in Univ. California Publ. Bot. 23: 283–361 (1950)
  • Meth.: 207 (1794)
  • Snowden in J.L.S. 55: 191 (1955)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0