Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Calliandra Benth.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Vernacular
calliandra, powder puff
Habit
Trees and shrubs
Ecology
Mostly seasonally dry tropical forest (many riparian), woodland, thorn forest and scrub (caatinga); wooded grassland (cerrado) and rocky shrubland (campo rupestre), some tropical submontane, several adapted to desert environments
Distribution
endemic to the Americas, ranging from SW USA to Uruguay, warm temperate Argentina and N Chile; 30 spp. restricted to N America, 4 spp. extending from N America into northern S America, 6 spp. endemic to the Caribbean, a concentration of taxa (66 spp.) from NE to SE Brazil (with 31 endemic to Bahia), 26 spp. restricted to N, NW and W S America (from the Guianas to S Peru and W Bolivia)
Note
Barneby (1998) restricted Calliandra to the Americas, rejecting Old World species named as Calliandra from the genus (see notes under Viguieranthus); he implied new generic status for two African species, referred Madagascan species to Viguieranthus and rejected 3 Indo-Burmese species from Calliandra sens. strict.

Nielsen (1981a) recognised 21 genera in Ingeae (Table 7), although 4 were not given generic names, but were referred to as ‘Gen. A’ to ‘Gen. D’. He recognised the genus Marmaroxylon, although without a generic number, so that the tribe, to the casual observer, appeared to contain only 20 genera. The genus Punjuba appended by Nielsen (1981a) under “genera and species of unknown affinity” is here treated as a synonym of Abarema, following Barneby & Grimes (1996), although we suggest that this may be reinstated as a good genus in the future. Nielsen (1981a) also included Pithecellobium incuriale (Vell.) Benth. as a “species of unknown affinity” but this is now placed in Leucochloron Barneby & Grimes (1996).

Polhill (1994) increased the number of genera of Ingeae to 25 (Table 7). He recognised Nielsen’s ‘Gen. A’ as Paraserianthes I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. B’ as Archidendropsis I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. C’ as Pararchidendron I.C.Nielsen, and ‘Gen. D’ as Macrosamanea Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip. He placed Faidherbia in Ingeae for the first time, reinstated Cathormion, Samanea and Chloroleucon, and recognised the monospecific Obolinga Barneby (subsequently subsumed into Cojoba by Barneby & Grimes, 1997). Zapoteca, a segregate of Calliandra described by Hernández (1986), was also added by Polhill (1994). Klugiodendron, recognised by Nielsen (1981a), was considered a synonym of Abarema by Polhill (1994), and Affonsea was placed as a synonym of Inga, a position later confirmed by Pennington (1997).

The present treatment of Ingeae recognises 36 genera (24 of which are New World endemics) and (935)–951–(966) species (Fig. 27). We follow Barneby & Grimes (1997) in placing Obolinga as a synonym of Cojoba. Eight genera: Blanchetiodendron, Ebenopsis, Hesperalbizia, Hydrochorea, Leucochloron, Painteria, Pseudosamanea, and Sphinga, have either been reinstated or described as new since 1994 (Barneby & Grimes, 1996). Paraserianthes section Falcataria was raised to generic status as Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & Grimes (1996). Balizia Barneby & Grimes (1996) is considered a synonym of Albizia following Rico Arce (1999). Guinetia L.Rico & M.Sousa was described as new (Rico Arce et al., 1999, publ. 2000), and Viguieranthus Villiers in 2002.

Clarification of generic relationships within tribe Ingeae still suffers from a paucity of molecular data, partly due to a lack of appropriate material for DNA extraction of the recently described and reinstated genera. Luckow et al. (2000) included four ingoid genera in their analysis of the basal genera of Mimosoideae. These formed a group together with Faidherbia (then still considered a member of tribe Acacieae, although moved to Ingeae by Polhill (1994)). Barneby & Grimes (1996) concentrating on neotropical taxa, divided American ingoids into five informal alliances: the Abarema-, Samanea-, Chloroleucon-, Pithecellobium- and Inga- alliances. Genera of uncertain position within their system included Albizia, Enterolobium and Cedrelinga. Lysiloma was considered as intermediate between tribes Ingeae and Acacieae. Luckow et al. (2003) carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae using chloroplast DNA sequence data. They treated sixteen of the 36 ingoid genera recognised in this account, including Faidherbia, but concluded that relationships within the Ingeae are generally unresolved and that, with only a few exceptions, clades within the ingoid part of their topology were not strongly supported. Albizia proved to be polyphyletic, supporting the findings of Grimes (1999).

Any new classification of the Ingeae will require sampling of all the genera not included by Luckow et al. (2003) and more extensive sampling of the larger and putatively non-monophyletic genera. Relationships between ingoid genera and the various elements of a polyphyletic Acacia have still to be resolved, although Luckow et al. (2003) have an Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae clade nested within the Ingeae, suggesting that at least part of Acacia sens. lat. (the Australian phyllodinous acacias) might be included within the Ingeae in the future, or that the Ingeae, as currently circumscribed, may have to be broken up into several distinct suprageneric taxa. Such suggestions are premature as 20 ingoid genera, including Abarema, Archidendron, Pithecellobium, Zygia and the largely Madagascan Viguieranthus have not yet been included in molecular analyses.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, generally unarmed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves bipinnate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary or racemosely arranged heads, the central flower often larger and different in form from the others
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx and corolla 5–6-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens ± numerous, the filaments united below into a tube; anthers eglandular at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear to oblong or oblanceolate, flat, with thickened margins, elastically dehiscing from the apex, with recurving valves.
Distribution
Some 150 species, the majority in Central and South America, at least eight species in Africa, some (perhaps generically distinct) in Madagascar (Viguieranthus Villiers), and India and Myanmar.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Nielsen (1981a) recognised 21 genera in Ingeae (Table 7), although 4 were not given generic names, but were referred to as ‘Gen. A’ to ‘Gen. D’. He recognised the genus Marmaroxylon, although without a generic number, so that the tribe, to the casual observer, appeared to contain only 20 genera. The genus Punjuba appended by Nielsen (1981a) under “genera and species of unknown affinity” is here treated as a synonym of Abarema, following Barneby & Grimes (1996), although we suggest that this may be reinstated as a good genus in the future. Nielsen (1981a) also included Pithecellobium incuriale (Vell.) Benth. as a “species of unknown affinity” but this is now placed in Leucochloron Barneby & Grimes (1996).

Polhill (1994) increased the number of genera of Ingeae to 25 (Table 7). He recognised Nielsen’s ‘Gen. A’ as Paraserianthes I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. B’ as Archidendropsis I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. C’ as Pararchidendron I.C.Nielsen, and ‘Gen. D’ as Macrosamanea Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip. He placed Faidherbia in Ingeae for the first time, reinstated Cathormion, Samanea and Chloroleucon, and recognised the monospecific Obolinga Barneby (subsequently subsumed into Cojoba by Barneby & Grimes, 1997). Zapoteca, a segregate of Calliandra described by Hernández (1986), was also added by Polhill (1994). Klugiodendron, recognised by Nielsen (1981a), was considered a synonym of Abarema by Polhill (1994), and Affonsea was placed as a synonym of Inga, a position later confirmed by Pennington (1997).

The present treatment of Ingeae recognises 36 genera (24 of which are New World endemics) and (935)–951–(966) species (Fig. 27). We follow Barneby & Grimes (1997) in placing Obolinga as a synonym of Cojoba. Eight genera: Blanchetiodendron, Ebenopsis, Hesperalbizia, Hydrochorea, Leucochloron, Painteria, Pseudosamanea, and Sphinga, have either been reinstated or described as new since 1994 (Barneby & Grimes, 1996). Paraserianthes section Falcataria was raised to generic status as Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & Grimes (1996). Balizia Barneby & Grimes (1996) is considered a synonym of Albizia following Rico Arce (1999). Guinetia L.Rico & M.Sousa was described as new (Rico Arce et al., 1999, publ. 2000), and Viguieranthus Villiers in 2002.

Clarification of generic relationships within tribe Ingeae still suffers from a paucity of molecular data, partly due to a lack of appropriate material for DNA extraction of the recently described and reinstated genera. Luckow et al. (2000) included four ingoid genera in their analysis of the basal genera of Mimosoideae. These formed a group together with Faidherbia (then still considered a member of tribe Acacieae, although moved to Ingeae by Polhill (1994)). Barneby & Grimes (1996) concentrating on neotropical taxa, divided American ingoids into five informal alliances: the Abarema-, Samanea-, Chloroleucon-, Pithecellobium- and Inga- alliances. Genera of uncertain position within their system included Albizia, Enterolobium and Cedrelinga. Lysiloma was considered as intermediate between tribes Ingeae and Acacieae. Luckow et al. (2003) carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae using chloroplast DNA sequence data. They treated sixteen of the 36 ingoid genera recognised in this account, including Faidherbia, but concluded that relationships within the Ingeae are generally unresolved and that, with only a few exceptions, clades within the ingoid part of their topology were not strongly supported. Albizia proved to be polyphyletic, supporting the findings of Grimes (1999).

Any new classification of the Ingeae will require sampling of all the genera not included by Luckow et al. (2003) and more extensive sampling of the larger and putatively non-monophyletic genera. Relationships between ingoid genera and the various elements of a polyphyletic Acacia have still to be resolved, although Luckow et al. (2003) have an Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae clade nested within the Ingeae, suggesting that at least part of Acacia sens. lat. (the Australian phyllodinous acacias) might be included within the Ingeae in the future, or that the Ingeae, as currently circumscribed, may have to be broken up into several distinct suprageneric taxa. Such suggestions are premature as 20 ingoid genera, including Abarema, Archidendron, Pithecellobium, Zygia and the largely Madagascan Viguieranthus have not yet been included in molecular analyses.

Habit
Shrubs
Ecology
Seasonally dry tropical lowland forest, 0-150 m
Distribution
Mexico (endemic to Oaxaca)

[LOWO]
Use
Widely cultivated as ornamentals ( calliandra, powder puff ); used in agroforestry (e.g., C. houstoniana (Mill.) Standl. var. calothyrsus (Meisn.) Barneby, as livestock fodder, fuelwood, green manure, pulp for paper production, erosion control, firebreaks, reforestation, bee forage, leaf meal (protein source), medicine and as shade trees

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Comoros, East Himalaya, Florida, Ghana, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kenya, Malaya, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nigeria, Pakistan, Queensland, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Calliandra Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2005 Pignal, M. [2560], Bahia K000868438 Yes
Jan 1, 1993 Burchell, W.J. [7988], Goiás K000868439 Yes
Colombia 44899.000 No
Sano, P.T. [14476], Bahia K000868458 Yes
Sano, P.T. [14476], Bahia K000868459 Yes
Bautista, H.P. [3873], Bahia K000868437 Yes
Harley, R.M. [14331], Bahia K000868441 Yes
Harley, R.M. [14272], Bahia K000868442 Yes
Pignal, M. [3182], Bahia K000868449 Yes
Harley, R.M. [13963], Minas Gerais K000868448 Yes
Harley, R.M. [14261], Bahia K000868447 Yes
Rico, L. [2034], Mexico K000266014 No
Sano, P.T. [14476], Bahia K000868457 Yes
Rico, L. [2036], Mexico K000266013 No
Sano, P.T. [14700], Bahia K000868460 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [3304], Mato Grosso K000868451 Yes
Teixeira, B.C. [s.n.], São Paulo K000868455 Yes
Prenner, G. [57], Cameroon 76395.000 No
Wendt, T. [5648], Mexico K000562901 No
Irwin, H.S. [28088], Minas Gerais K000868453 Yes
Queiroz, L.P. [12630], Rio Grande do Sul K000868446 Yes
Amorim, A.M. [4568], Bahia K000868454 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [4045], Minas Gerais K000868450 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [28095], Minas Gerais K000868456 Yes
Harley, R.M. [14261], Bahia K000868440 Yes

First published in J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 138 (1840)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 536 (1875).
  • —F.T.A. 2: 354

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Legumes of the World Online

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0