Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Mucuna Adans.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Vernacular
buffalo bean, mucuná
Habit
Mostly lianas
Ecology
Tropical wet lowland to montane, often coastal rain forest, to seasonally dry forest, woodland and thicket
Distribution
pantropical (c. 80 spp. in Asia and China, 1-2 spp. in Australia; c. 12 spp. in Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes; c. 12-13 spp. in the Neotropics, centred in C America & the Caribbean)
Note
Stizolobium is sometimes maintained as a separate genus but is retained under Mucuna here pending full revision; molecular evidence (Doyle et al., 2000) places Mucuna sister to tribe Desmodieae

Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

[FZ]

Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Climbing herbs, woody lianes or rarely erect shrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules deciduous; stipels often present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, subumbellate, falsely racemose or condensed paniculate; bracts and bracteoles deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers showy, white, purple, red or greenish-yellow to golden-yellow or almost black.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5-lobed, 2-lipped, the upper pair of lobes connate to form an entire or bifid lip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard rounded, with inflexed auricles at the base, usually much shorter than the other petals; keel petals usually horny at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; 5 larger anthers subbasifixed, alternating with 5 shorter versatile or dorsifixed anthers, often barbate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary few-ovuled; style long, filiform, sometimes pubescent but not bearded, bent; stigma small and terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods ovoid, oblong or linear, the valves thick, often ribbed, frequently covered with irritant bristles, septate or filled between the seeds, mostly dehiscent but sometimes not opening.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds either globose or oblong, with a short or linear hilum and conspicuous rim aril, or larger, discoid, with an elongated hilum occupying over half the circumference and no aril present.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Climbing herbs, woody lianes or rarely erect shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules deciduous; stipels often present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, subumbellate, falsely racemose or condensed paniculate; bracts and bracteoles deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers showy, purple, red or greenish-yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5-lobed, 2-lipped, the upper pair of lobes connate to form an entire or bifid lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard rounded, with inflexed auricles at the base, usually much shorter than the other petals; keel-petals usually horny at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; 5 larger anthers subbasifixed, alternating with 5 shorter versatile or dorsifixed anthers, often barbate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary few-ovuled; style long, filiform, sometimes pubescent but not bearded, bent; stigma small and terminal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods or fruits ovoid, oblong or linear, the valves thick, often ribbed, frequently covered with irritant bristles, septate or filled between the seeds, mostly dehiscent but sometimes not opening
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds either globose or oblong, with a short or linear hilum and conspicuous rim-aril, or larger, discoid, with an elongated hilum occupying over half the circumference and no aril present.

[LOWO]
Use
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (velvet, Bengal or Mauritius bean) , is widely grown for forage and as a cover crop and green manure; the hairs on many species (often known as buffalo bean ) are an intense irritant; some species are ornamentals

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bahamas, Florida, Marquesas, Mauritius, Nauru, Queensland, Society Is., Transcaucasus

Mucuna Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Chancellor, R.J. [300], Uganda 11482.000 No
Powell, D.A. [98] 32071.000 No
Orr, D., USA 58721.000 No
Strahm, W., Mauritius 59149.000 No
Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000279331 Yes
Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000279328 Yes
Pollard, B.J. [502], Cameroon K000460199 No

First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 325 (1763)

Accepted by

  • De Moura, T.M., Lewis, G.P., Mansano, V.F. & Tozzi, A.M.G.A. (2018). A revision of the neotropical Mucuna species (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). Phytotaxa 337: 1-65.
  • Wilmot-Dear, C.M. (2008). Mucuna Adans. (Leguminosae) in Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 36: 114-139.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 184.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fam. Pl. 2: 325 (1763) nom. conserv.
  • Prain, J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 66: 404 (1897).
  • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 286–293 (1970)
  • in F.T.E.A., Leguminosae, Pap.: 561–571 (1971)
  • in Kirkia 14: 1–11 (1993).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fam. Pl. 2: 325 (1763)
  • Prain, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 66: 404 (1897), nom. conserv .

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