Xanthophyllum Roxb.

First published in Pl. Coromandel 3: 81 (1820)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to NE. Australia.

Descriptions

Timothy M. A. Utteridge and Laura V. S. Jennings (2022). Trees of New Guinea. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Distribution
A genus of about 90 species, distributed from India to Australia with the centre of diversity in western Malesia (particularly the Malay Peninsula and Borneo). Only five species occur in New Guinea.
Morphology General Habit
Trees and shrubs to 45 m tall, glands usually present at the nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely spirally arranged, petiolate, glandular below, mostly near petiole, often yellowish when dry. Inflorescences axillary, paniculate or racemose, or flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5-merous, each subtended by 1 bract and 2 bracteoles; sepals free, the 2 lateral ones usually twice as large as the other 3, caducous; petals free, usually unequal, lower petal boat-shaped, clawed, apical appendages absent; stamens usually 8, in 2 whorls, filaments free or minimally fused at the base, dehiscing by slits; disk annular; ovary usually on a short stipe, 1- or rarely partially 2-locular, style apical, sometimes curved, stigma 2-lobed or capitate, ovules 4–20(–40) in 2 series
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose to ellipsoid berry, pericarp leathery to hard
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–20, glabrous, exarillate
Ecology
Xanthophyllum species in New Guinea are canopy trees in rain forest up to about 1500 m.
Recognition
The leaves of this genus are often yellowish when dry, but not all the New Guinea species show this trait; in addition, many species have few to several small, crater-like or pitted glands on the near the base of the abaxial (lower) surface of the leaf. Other characters for Xanthophyllum are the free sepals and petals, free filaments, the 1-locular ovary with numerous ovules and the many-seeded, hard or leathery fruit which can be quite large (up to 15 cm across in X. papuanum Whitmore ex Meijden).
[TONG]

Sources

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0