Xylopia L.

First published in Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1250 (1759)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropics & Subtropics.


Native to:

Angola, Argentina Northeast, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe


Heterotypic Synonyms

Accepted Species


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POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa. PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.

Kew Bulletin

  • Botermans, M., Sosef, M. S. M., Chatrou, L. W. & Couvreur, T. L. P. (2011). Revision of the African genus Hexalobus (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. 36: 33 – 48.
  • Burgess, N. D., Clarke, G. P. & Rogers, W. A. (1998). Coastal forests of eastern Africa: status, endemism patterns and their potential causes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 337 – 367.
  • Burgess, N. D., Mwasumbi, L. B., Hawthorne,W. J., Dickinson, A. & Doggett, R. A. (1992). Preliminary assessment of the distribution, status and biological importance of coastal forests in Tanzania. Biol. Conservation 62: 205 – 218.
  • Burgess, N. D., Salehe, J., Doggart, N., Clarke, G. P., Gordon, I., Sumbi, P. & Rodgers, A. (2004). Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. In: R. A. Mittermeier, P. R. Gil, R. Hoffmann, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C. G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoreux & G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Hotspots revisited: Earth’s biologically richest and most endangered ecosystems: 231 – 239. Conservation International,Washington, D. C., and Cemex, Mexico City.
  • Burkill, H. M. (1985). The useful plants of West tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Burrows, J. E. & Burrows, S. M. (2010). Rubiaceae: a new species of Didymosalpinx and a new species of Oxyanthus from Mozambique and Tanzania.Bothalia 40(2): 200 – 204.
  • Clarke, G. P. (1998). A new regional centre of endemism in Africa. In: C. R. Huxley, J. M. Lock & D. F. Cutler (eds), Chorology, taxonomy&ecology of the floras of Africa and Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Couvreur, T. L. P. (2009). Monograph of the syncarpous African genera Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 87: 1 – 150.
  • Couvreur, T. L. P., Gereau, R. E., Wieringa, J. J. & Richardson, J. E. (2006). Description of four new species of Monodora and Isolona (Annonaceae) from Tanzania and an overview of Tanzanian Annonaceae diversity. Adansonia 28: 243 – 266.
  • Couvreur, T. L. P., van der Ham, R. W. J.M., Mbele, Y. M. &Mbago, F. M. (2009). Molecular and morphological characterization of a new monotypic genus of Annonaceae, Mwasumbia, from Tanzania. Syst. Bot. 34: 266 – 276.
  • Dunal, M. F. (1817). Monographie de la famille des Anonacées. Treuttel & Würtz, Paris.
  • Engler, A. & Diels, L. (1901). VI. Anonaceae. In: A. Engler (ed.), Monographien afrikanischer Pflanzenfamilien und Gattungen. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Fero, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F. & Velayos, M. (2014). Taxonomic revision of Neostenanthera (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. 39: 17 – 30.
  • Hawthorne, W. D. (1993). East African coastal forest botany. In: J. C. Lovett & S. K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and ecology of the rain forests of eastern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Johnson, D. M., Mwasumbi, L. B. & Mbago, F. M. (1999). New species of Xylopia and Uvaria (Annonaceae) from Tanzania. Novon 9: 55 – 60.
  • Le Thomas, A. (1969). 16: Annonacées. In: A. Aubréville (ed.), Flore du Gabon. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Luke, Q. (2005). Annotated checklist of the plants of the Shimba Hills, Kwale District, Kenya. J. E. African Nat. Hist. Soc. 94: 5 – 120.
  • Maas, P. J. M., van Heusden, E. C. H., Koek-Noorman, van Setten, A. K. & Westra, L. Y. T. (1986). Studies in Annonaceae. VII. New species from the Neotropics and miscellaneous notes. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C 89(3): 249 – 278.
  • Robson, N. K. B. (1960). Annonaceae. In A. W. Exell & H. Wild (eds), Flora Zambesiaca 1 (1): 104 – 149. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.
  • Sayer, J. A., Harcourt, C. S. & Collins, N. M. (eds). (1991). The conservation atlas of tropical forests: Africa. IUCN and Simon & Schuster, New York.
  • Stone, R. G. (2013). Warneckea cordiformis sp. nov. (Melastomataceae — Olisbeoideae) from a coastal dry forest in northern Mozambique. Nordic J. Bot. 31: 113 –117.
  • Timberlake, J.,Goyder,D.,Crawford,F.,Burrows, J., Clarke, G. P., Luke,Q., Matimele,H., Müller,T., Pascal, O., de Sousa, C. & Alves, T. (2011). Coastal dry forests in northern Mozambique. Pl. Ecol. Evol. 144: 126 – 137.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Annonaceae. In: E. Milne-Redhead & R. M. Polhill (eds), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.
  • Versteegh, C. P. C. & Sosef, M. S. M. (2007). Revision of the African genus Annickia (Annonaceae). Syst. Geogr. Plants 77: 91 – 118.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Engl. & Diels Monogr. Afr. Annonac. 57 (1901).
  • —F.T.A. 1: 29

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Syst. Nat. ed. 10: 1250 (1759) nom. conserv.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1241, 1250 & 1378 (1759), nom. conserv.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 1, 2023 Polak, A.M. [919] Indonesia K001871550 No
Jan 1, 2019 Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001400511 Isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2019 Capuron, R. [20041-SF] Madagascar K001208409 Isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2019 Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001208447 Type Yes
Jan 1, 2019 Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001400512 Type Yes
Jan 1, 2019 Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001208446 Type Yes
Jan 1, 2018 Buchanan, J. [237] Malawi K001208617 Holotype Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Rantai, J., et al. [S.92169] Malaysia K000720728 No
Jan 1, 2015 Rantai, J., et al. [S.92171] Malaysia K000720726 Yes
May 9, 2006 Gaerlan; Chavez [PPI 26402] Philippines K000271654 No
Apr 20, 2006 Reynoso; Majaducon [PPI 24154] Philippines K000271614 No
Scott-Elliott [s.n.] Madagascar K001208426 Yes
Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001400509 Type Yes
Pierre [75] Vietnam K001612622 Yes
Rakotonasolo, F.; Randrianasolo, M. [RNF 510] Madagascar K001622498 Yes
Rabenantoandro, J. [1249] Madagascar K001208422 No
Krukoff, B.A. [8978] Brazil K001186187 Yes
Onochie, C.F.A. [FH1.40204] Nigeria K:SPC-28208.000 No
Barnett, L. [450] Madagascar K001208423 Yes
Jemree; Jugah; et al. [S. 74919] Malaysia K001625903 Yes
Prance, G.T. [s.n.] Brazil K001186184 Yes
Argent, G.C.G. [6892] Brazil K001186165 Yes
Harris, D.J. [2622] Central African Republic K:SPC-63038.000 No
Maingay, A.C. [2376] Malaysia K000574709 Unknown Type Material Yes
Meikle, R.D. [757] Nigeria K:SPC-17650.000 No
Gardner [5433] Brazil K001186186 Yes
Polak, A.M. [754] Papua New Guinea K001870523 No
Lai; Rantai; et al. [S. 69195] Malaysia K001765082 Yes
Lai; Rantai; et al. [S. 69195] Malaysia K001765083 Yes
Prance, G.T.; Pena, B.S.; Ramos, J.F.; Monteiro, O.P. [3847] Brazil K000221090 Isotype Yes
Jemree, S.; Awang; Jugah; et al. [S. 92809] Malaysia K001625884 Yes
Othman; Yahud; et al. [S. 65133] Malaysia K001625889 Yes
Amin, A. [SAN 126223] Malaysia K001625898 Yes
Jamree; Banyeng; Awg Enjah [S. 73290] Malaysia K001625900 Yes
Golman, M.; Takeuchi, W. [1] Papua New Guinea K001622328 Yes
Capuron, R. [22777-SF] Madagascar K001400510 Type Yes
Curtis, C. [2482] Malaysia K000574713 Unknown Type Material Yes
Prance, G.T.; Silva, N.T. [59422] Brazil K000221084 Isotype Yes
Harley, R.M. [10080] Brazil K001186164 Yes
Randriamboavonjy, T.; Rajaovelona, L.; Andrianaivoravelona, B.; Cribb, P.; Renz, T.; Bühlmann, R. [RTI 907] Madagascar K000664657 Yes
Rabenantoandro, J. [1249] Madagascar K001208421 Yes
Simaga, J.M. [09686 ] Papua New Guinea K001625842 Yes
Mohizah; Jegong; et al. [S. 66893] Malaysia K001625890 Yes
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9785] Cameroon K000105616 Yes
Pierre, J.B.L. [205] Cambodia K000574685 Unknown Type Material Yes
Amaral, I.L. [s.n.] Brazil K001186188 Yes
s.coll. [3335] Sri Lanka K000574726 Unknown Type Material Yes
Mueller, F. [s.n.] Australia K000574755 Unknown Type Material Yes
Rose, N.A. [1947] Brazil K001186185 Yes
Pirani, J.R. [1265] Brazil K001186182 Yes
Harris, D.J. [2622] Central African Republic K:SPC-63053.000 No
Walker [s.n.] Sri Lanka K000574727 Unknown Type Material Yes
Schatz, G.E. [3042] Madagascar K001208429 No
Baron, Revd, R. [3124] Madagascar K001208427 No
Maingay, A.C. [2376.continued] Malaysia K000574712 Unknown Type Material Yes
Onjalalaina, G.E. [OLG448] Madagascar K000953671 Yes
Bernard, R. [778] Madagascar K001208428 Yes
Birkinshaw, C. [1731] Madagascar K001208424 Yes
Melo, M.R.C.S. [239] Brazil K001186183 Yes
Keay, R.W.J. [28044] Nigeria K:SPC-28044.000 No
Ranarivelo, H. [RHS752] Madagascar K001208425 Yes
Mildbraed, G., W. J. [10629] Cameroon K000105618 Yes
Rabevohitra, R. [4093] Madagascar K001208420 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6423] Unona K001123866 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6423] Unona K001123868 Type Yes
Greenway; Rawlins [9345] Kenya Unona K:SPC-64101.000 No
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6423] Unona K001123867 Unknown Type Material Yes
Porter, G. [Cat. no. 6425] Malaysia Unona K001123871 Unknown Type Material Yes


  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0