Rumex acetosa L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 337 (1753), nom. cons.
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Temp. Eurasia, NW. Africa. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Descriptions

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Common sorrel is today used in sauces and as a spinach or salad leaf; the sap can be used as a laundry stain-remover.

Rumex acetosa, also known as common sorrel, is a herbaceous plant native to the British Isles. It was once cultivated as a vegetable but is now merely a wild food plant; it is also used in herbal medicine for its diuretic properties.

The species belongs to a group of plants commonly known as docks. They can be bisexual or have male or female flowers on separate plants. The leaves of the common sorrel are acidic to taste and contain high levels of oxalic acid. The larvae of several species of butterflies and moths, including the blood-vein moth, feed on the leaves of sorrel.

The leaves are used in herbal medicine for their cooling and diuretic properties. They were once eaten to prevent or treat scurvy. Sorrel is also used to treat sinusitis and cancer.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Common sorrel is native to the British Isles.

Description

Common sorrel is a herbaceous perennial growing to a height of about 1 m, with stems arising from a short underground one. The leaves are large, ovate in outline and have characteristic, pointed basal leaf lobes that direct backwards; the leaves are sour to taste. The small pinkish flowers are unisexual (either male of female) and are sometimes only present on separate plants. They are in whorls on the flowering stems and have six rounded tepals with a small tubercle near the base; the inner three enlarge when the fruit matures and envelope it. The fruit is a triangular achene.

Variations in certain characteristics related to particular habitats reveal three subspecies. One of these is found on coastal dunes of north-west, west and south Ireland, north Scotland, south-west England and south-west Wales and is restricted to these regions; the second is found on sea cliffs in west Cornwall; the third is of unknown origin and is introduced. This subspecies is grown as a vegetable but can be found naturalised in Hertfordshire and East Suffolk.

Uses

Common sorrel was a popular cultivated vegetable in Europe until the Middle Ages, when improved varieties of related species replaced it. Today, it is gathered from the wild for use in sauces, and as a spinach or salad leaf. The sap can be used as a laundry stain-remover.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Three

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

Germination testing: Successful

Distribution
United Kingdom
Ecology
Grassland, coastal dunes and cliffs.
Conservation
Least concern; common and widespread.
Hazards

The presence of oxalic acid in the plant may pose risks for people with rheumatic-type complaints, kidney or bladder stones.

[KSP]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Uses

Use
Food, herbal medicine.
[KSP]

Common Names

English
Common Sorrel, Common sorrel

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0