Genus:
Triticum L.

Triticum aestivum L.

Bread wheat is one of the world's three main cereal crops, along with rice and maize. The generic name Triticum derives from the Latin for threshing or bruising, and the specific epithet aestivum is from the Latin for summer.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms 60-100 cm long. Culm-internodes thin-walled. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pubescent. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades 10-60 cm long; 10-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; linear, or oblong; bilateral; 5-18 cm long. Rhachis tough; flattened; glabrous on surface; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes oblong; 2-3 mm long. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; 9-18 mm wide; persistent on plant. Rhachilla internodes 1-1.2 mm long.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; 9-18 mm wide; persistent on plant. Rhachilla internodes 1-1.2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 6-11 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 2-keeled; keeled above; winged on keel; winged above; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous, or villous. Lower glume apex with a unilateral tooth; truncate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 0-40 mm long. Upper glume ovate; 6-11 mm long; 0.5-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 2-keeled; keeled above; 5-9 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins divergent at apex. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent, or villous. Upper glume apex with a unilateral tooth; truncate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 0-40 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; 12-15 mm long; chartaceous; keeled; keeled above; 5-9 -veined. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0-150 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; conspicuously winged; ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; sulcate on hilar side; 5-7 mm long; hairy at apex. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern and north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Triticeae. Fl Iran.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Bread-wheat, is – or has been – cultivated at about 1500 m on the plains east of Borama (N1).
Morphology General Habit
Annual with non-shattering spikelets on a tough rhachis; glumes with a compressed keel in the upper half only, rounded below (often the midnerve prominent to the base, but the glume otherwise without a ridge below).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 2000–3000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Nariño.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Trigo

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Bread wheat is one of the world's three main cereal crops, along with rice and maize. The generic name Triticum derives from the Latin for threshing or bruising, and the specific epithet aestivum is from the Latin for summer.

Triticum aestivum is a cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding) and as such is only known in cultivation. First domesticated at least 9,000 years ago, its origins have been the subject of intensive botanical and genetic research.

It is a member of the grass family (Poaceae), which includes cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and oat (Avena sativa), and ornamentals such as pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and bamboos.

Species Profile
Cultivars of bread wheat

There are about 5,000 cultivars of bread wheat in current use. Historically, about 35,000 cultivars have been developed, but the vast majority of these are no longer cultivated on a commercial scale.

In order to determine whether a particular form of bread wheat differs enough from existing cultivars to be named as a new one, the 'DUS test' is applied. They must be Distinct (in morphology), Uniform (the whole field must look the same) and Stable (subsequent years of cultivation must produce similarly looking plants).

Names relating to particular cultivars include bukshee wheat, lammas wheat, Talavela wheat, velvety awned wheat, and many others.

Geography and distribution

Bread wheat is the result of a cross between a wild goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii , and a cultivated wheat, probably macaroni wheat ( Triticum durum ). Genetics suggests this cross took place in the Caspian region of Iran; archaeology suggests that this took place about 9,000 years ago.

The closely related spelt wheat ( T. spelta ), in which the grains are enclosed by a tight husk, originated in central Europe much more recently, about 5,000 years ago, from a cross between cultivated bread wheat and emmer wheat ( T. dicoccum ). Spelt wheat is often incorrectly described as a biblical wheat, but it was never grown in the ancient Near East.

Bread wheat is cultivated in every continent except Antarctica. It is grown at a wide elevational range from 260 m below sea level in the Jordan Valley up to 4,000 m on the Tibetan plateau. Although it is possible to grow bread wheat in a wide variety of soil types and climates, it is generally more successful in dry to sub-humid areas with a seasonal annual rainfall of 250-750 mm.

It is the world's most widely planted crop, occupying 225 million hectares in 2009 (compared with 161 million ha of rice and 159 million ha of maize in that same year). China and India are the largest producers of bread wheat, nearly all of which is destined for their domestic markets.

Description

Overview: An annual, largely hairless grass, producing a spike (flowering and fruiting part) on each of its 1-5 culms (stems). Height is variable, from about 1.2-1.5 m for 1930s cultivars to about 85 cm for most modern cultivars, with a simultaneous strengthening of the culm so as to bear the increased weight (resulting from the increased grain yield) of the spike. This has been achieved by incorporating dwarfing genes, from Japanese cultivar Norin 10 , into most modern (post 1960s) varieties. The shorter height of modern cultivars enables them to be grown with fertiliser and irrigation; otherwise they would grow too tall and fall over (lodging).

Culms (stems): Hollow with hairless or hairy nodes. Each culm bearing around six leaves with blades up to 20 mm wide and up to 35 cm long. The position of the uppermost 'flag leaf' blade (upright, semi-nodding or nodding) is an important character as it plays a leading role in the metabolic assimilation rate and hence productivity of the plant.

Spikes (flowering and fruiting parts): Up to 15 cm long, almost square in cross-section, with 2-5 rudimentary spikelets (clustered units of flowers and bracts) at the base of 10-25 fertile spikelets (of which the number and density in the spike varies greatly among cultivars).

Glumes (empty bracts that enclose the spikelet) are keeled in the upper half, the keel extending into a tooth. Lemmas (bracts) are toothed or awned; when awned these increasing in length up to around 13 cm near the apex of the spike. Truly awnless bread wheat cultivars do not exist as there is always at least a short awn on some of the lemmas.

Seeds: Typically an average of two per spikelet (but significant variation has been recorded), oval in shape with a central groove on the ventral surface and a terminal tuft of hairs. Endosperm mealy (or sometimes flinty).

Agricultural, as opposed to botanical, terminology In agricultural terminology, culms are known as tillers , spikes as ears and awns as beards . For example, a cultivar might be described as having 'four tillers per plant and bearded ears'. Rather than quoting variation in number of grains per spike, agricultural cultivar descriptions are more likely to include the average 1,000 seed weight.

Summer and winter wheat

Two main groups of wheat have been developed:

spring or summer wheat - sown in spring and harvested in late summerwinter wheat - sown in autumn and harvested in early summer

A third group, known as facultative or intermediate wheat, can be grown under a wider range of environmental conditions and combines characteristics of the other two groups.

Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus used the name Triticum aestivum to refer to the (conspicuously awned) summer or spring wheats, whereas he proposed T. hybernum for the ('awnless') winter wheats.

In the late 18th century, German priest and botanist Franz von Paula Schrank observed that there was no correlation between the perceived presence or absence of awns and the cultivar being a summer or winter form of wheat.

It is now accepted that summer, spring and winter wheats are all the same species, for which the correct, approved name is Triticum aestivum .

Threats and conservation

About 250,000 samples of bread wheat are held in agricultural gene banks around the world, so the plant is far from being threatened. However, there is cause for concern in terms of bread wheat landraces, which are being replaced by modern cultivars and under threat of extinction if not already conserved in ex-situ collections.

Wheat landraces are varieties that have been developed by farmers over many years and through natural and human selection have become adapted to local environmental conditions and management practices. These distinct plant populations are named and maintained by farmers who often rely on them to fulfil their specific, local needs and are a valuable source of biodiversity for possible use in breeding programs.

Uses

Food

Domestication of wheat around 10,000 years ago is credited with enabling the transition from nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyles to formation of the first major human settlements. Today, wheat is an important part of the human diet, contributing 20% of all food calories consumed by humans.

The wheat kernel or grain can be ground into flour; germinated and dried creating malt; crushed or cut into cracked wheat; and parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned to create bulgur (also known as groats in countries including Georgia in the Transcaucasus).

When grains are milled, the outer husk or bran that encloses them becomes a by-product. Wheat bran contains starch, protein, vitamins and minerals, and its dietary soluble fibres are good for the digestive system. It is used to enrich bread and breakfast cereals and foods such as borscht soup in eastern Europe.

Bread wheat is a major ingredient in foods such as breads, crackers, biscuits, pancakes, pies, pastries, cakes, sauces, muesli and breakfast cereals.

Wheat gluten allergy (coeliac disease) is a condition caused by an adverse immune system reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat. The only remedy is a lifelong gluten-free diet.

Drink

Wheat is used to produce boza (a fermented beverage, produced mainly in the Balkans and Turkey) and wheat beer (production of which is minor compared to beer made using barley). It is also distilled to produce vodka and other spirits.

Textiles and building materials

Bread wheat straw is used for thatching and weaving, for example to make straw hats.

There is anecdotal evidence from the Yemen where the tall, flexible culms of local cultivars are of more monetary value than the grain, due to their use as thatch and, when chopped-up, as admixture to enhance the strength of plaster for houses. Farmers are therefore loath to accept yield-improved but short-stemmed, modern varieties. As a result most grain used in Yemen is imported from Australia.

Other uses

Wheat bran has been used for tanning leather and is apparently also a good slug 'poison' (it swells so much after ingestion that the slugs 'pop').

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Six collections of Triticum aestivum seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

Wheat seeds are known for their potential longevity in storage: research indicates that for a sample starting ex situ life with maximum viability, it would take 900 years to fall to 75% viability.

This species at Kew

Common bread wheat can be seen growing in Kew's Grass Garden.

Pressed and dried specimens of Triticum aestivum are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of specimens of other species of Triticum can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Triticum aestivum flowers, seeds and a straw hat, breakfast cereals and packaging material made from it are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Ecology
Unknown in the wild; cultivated from the near-Arctic to the tropics.
Conservation
Widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

Wheat gluten allergy is a condition caused by an adverse immune system reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
marengo, trigo, trigo almequemé, trigo argentino, trigo arroceño, trigo barcino, trigo bolapicota, trigo bolarraspa, trigo bolas, trigo bonza, trigo cañablanca, trigo cartagua, trigo centeno, trigo colorao, trigo cuanca, trigo diacó, trigo florel marengo, trigo menquemé, trigo motilón, trigo nariño, trigo oregón, trigo pielroja, trigo regua, trigo tiba, trigo tresgranos, trigo tusita

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Fibres
Used for crafts (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Used to decorate wooden items (Linares et al. 2008).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[KSP]
Use
Food, drink, textiles, building materials.

Native to:

India, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Pakistan, Palestine, Transcaucasus, Turkey, West Himalaya

Extinct in:

Jawa

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Antipodean Is., Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Bread wheat
Spanish
Trigo.

Triticum aestivum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 24, 2017 Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979071 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979075 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979077 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979078 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979070 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979072 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979073 Yes
Nov 24, 2017 Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979074 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979076 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979080 Yes
Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979082 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [913], Germany K000979083 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979084 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 171], United Kingdom K000914554 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979085 Yes
Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979087 Yes
Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979081 Yes
Kornicke, F.A. [s.n.], Germany K000979079 Yes
Scheppig, A. A. C. [s.n.], Germany K000979086 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 85 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Bettencourt, E. & Konopka, J. (1990). Directory of Germplasm Collections 3: Cereals (Avena , Hordeum , Millets, Oryza , Secale , Sorghum , Triticum , Zea and Pseudocereals). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome.
  • Dvorak, J., Deal, K. R., Luo, M. C., You, F. M., von Borstel, K. & Dehghani, H. (2012). The origin of spelt and free-threshing hexaploid wheat. Journal of Heredity 103: 426–441.
  • Hanelt, P., Schulze-Motel, J. & Jarvis, C. E. (1983). (715) Proposal to conserve Triticum aestivum L (1753) against Triticum hybernum L. (1753) (Gramineae). Taxon 32: 492–498.
  • Jaradat, A. A. (2011). Wheat Landraces: Genetic Resources for Sustenance and Sustainability. USDA-ARS, Maine, USA.
  • Jonard, P. (1951). Les Blés Tendres Cultivés en France – Détermination et Caractéristiques Culturales. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris.
  • Löve, Á. (1982). Generic evolution of the wheatgrasses. Biologisches Zentralblatt 101: 199–212.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Mac Key, J. (2005). Wheat: its concept, evolution, and taxonomy. In: Durum Wheat Breeding: Current Approaches and Future Strategies, C. Rojo, M. M. Nachit, N. Di Fonzo, W. H. Pfeiffer & G. A. Slater (eds), Food Products Press, Binghamton, New York, USA.
  • Oklahoma State University (2013). World Wheat Production. 
  • Schrank, F. von Paula (1789). Baierische Flora. Joh. Bapt. Strobl, München.
  • Stubbs, R. W., Prescott, J. M., Saari, E. E. & Dubin, H. J. (1986). Cereal Disease Methodology Manual. Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT).
  • Wang, J., Luo, M. C., Chen, Z., You, F. M., Wei, Y., Zheng, Y. & Dvorak, J. (2013). Aegilops tauschii single nucleotide polymorphisms shed light on the origins of wheat D‐genome genetic diversity and pinpoint the geographic origin of hexaploid wheat. New Phytologist 198: 925–37.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Sp. Pl. 85 (1753).

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38
  • Linares, E.L., Galeano, G., García, N. & Figueroa, Y. (2008). Fibras vegetales utilizadas en artesanías en Colombia. Artesanías de Colombia S.A. , Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Sumadijaya, A. (2011). An account of the non-bambusoid alien grasses (Poaceae) in Java, one century after first records by Backer Folia Malaysiana 12: 47-68.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2012-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Species Profiles

    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/