Bischofia javanica Blume

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Tree 4–15 m. tall, with a narrow crown and drooping branches; bark brown, slightly scaly; wood very soft.
Morphology Twigs
Twigs sparingly lenticellate; shoots, petioles and petiolules glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Petioles 9–17 cm. long, pulvinate at the base; median petiolules 3.5–5 cm. long, laterals 0.5–2 cm. long; leaflets 3(–5), elliptic-ovate to elliptic-obovate, (5–)7–14 cm. long, 3–9 cm. wide, the laterals slightly asymmetrical and smaller than the terminal, acutely or subacutely and often abruptly acuminate at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, crenate-serrate, firmly membranaceous to chartaceous, lateral nerves 7–9(–11), not or scarcely prominent above, slightly so beneath, weakly brochidodromous and reticulate towards the margin, tertiary nerves reticulate, glabrous above, sparingly puberulous at least along the midrib and otherwise ± glabrous beneath, dark green and somewhat shiny above, paler and duller beneath.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules lanceolate to triangular-lanceolate, 0.7–1 (–2) cm. long, acutely acuminate, entire, subglabrous, brown.
sex Male
Male panicles (9–)11–14(–20) cm. long; peduncles ± 2–2.5 cm. long; axis and rhachides sparingly minutely puberulous; bracts ovate, 1–2 mm. long, acute, brown. Male flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, slender, articulate 1/3 up from the base, pubescent below the articulation, glabrous above it; sepals broadly elliptic, 2 mm. long, rounded, ciliolate, yellowish green; stamens 1.1 mm. long, anthers 0.9 mm. long and wide, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm. high, 0.7 mm. across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female panicles somewhat larger (up to 27 cm. long), with the peduncles up to 7 cm. long. Male panicles (9–)11–14(–20) cm. long; peduncles ± 2–2.5 cm. long; axis and rhachides sparingly minutely puberulous; bracts ovate, 1–2 mm. long, acute, brown.
sex Female
Female panicles somewhat larger (up to 27 cm. long), with the peduncles up to 7 cm. long. Female flowers:pedicels (1–)2–4 mm. long, articulate, pubescent throughout, extending to 2 cm. long in fruit; sepals ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, acute, subentire, sparingly puberulous without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale green with white margins; ovary subglobose, 1–1.5 mm. in diameter, ± smooth, glabrous; style-arms (4–)5–6 mm. long, stigmas slightly papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers:pedicels (1–)2–4 mm. long, articulate, pubescent throughout, extending to 2 cm. long in fruit; sepals ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, acute, subentire, sparingly puberulous without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale green with white margins; ovary subglobose, 1–1.5 mm. in diameter, ± smooth, glabrous; style-arms (4–)5–6 mm. long, stigmas slightly papillose. Male flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, slender, articulate 1/3 up from the base, pubescent below the articulation, glabrous above it; sepals broadly elliptic, 2 mm. long, rounded, ciliolate, yellowish green; stamens 1.1 mm. long, anthers 0.9 mm. long and wide, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm. high, 0.7 mm. across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 5–6 mm. in diameter, ± smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, smooth, somewhat shiny, yellowish brown.
Habitat
Cultivated in gardens and arboreta, becoming naturalized as an understorey tree in evergreen forest; 1550–1770 m.
Distribution
native from S. India eastwards to S. China and the Cook Is., occasionally cultivated elsewhere K4 K5

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2200 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1000–2200 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: artificial - terrestrial.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Florida, Hawaii, Kenya, Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico

Bischofia javanica Blume appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 10, 2007 Galore, M. [NGF 41022], Papua New Guinea K000272213 No
Jan 1, 1925 Wight, R. [941], India K000246701 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1925 Wight, R. [941], India K000246702 Unknown type material Yes
Smith, T.E [s.n.], India K000246700 Unknown type material Yes
Roxburgh, W. [s.n], India K000246699 Unknown type material Yes
s.coll. [54], Jawa K001056539 Yes

First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 1168 (1827)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Wheatley, J.I. (1992). A guide to the common trees of Vanuatu. With lists of their traditional uses & ni-Vanuatu names: 1-308. Department of Forestry, Port Vila.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. (2016). Bischofia and Hymenocardia (Phyllanthaceae) in Malesia Blumea 61: 272-279.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bl., Bijdr. 17: 1168 (1826/7).
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 478 (1866).
  • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (15): 313 (1922).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0