Euphorbia peplus L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Medit. to Somalia, Europe to W. Himalaya. It is an annual and grows primarily in the temperate biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European Russia, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Ascension, Assam, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Denmark, Easter Is., Ecuador, Free State, Føroyar, Great Britain, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Accepted Infraspecifics

Classification

Kew's Tree of Life Explorer

Discover the flowering plant tree of life and the genomic data used to build it.

View the Tree of Life
PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Geltman, D.V. (2020). A synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) for the Cacuasus. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 51: 43-78.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hassler, M. & Muer, T. (2022). Flora Germanica: alle Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands in Text und Bild 1: 1-864. Verlag Regionalkultur, Uberstadt-Weiher.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes. epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ryabinina, Z.N. & Knyazev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • de Salas, MF, Baker, ML (2022). A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, including Macquarie Island: 1-161. Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. https://flora.tmag.tas.gov.au/resources/census/.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 454 (1958).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 72 (1952).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753).
  • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 255 (1915).

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2020 Christenhusz, M.J.M. [MC9009] United Kingdom K001400680 Yes
Mar 10, 2011 Day, C.D. [27] Türkiye K000341668 No
Sep 10, 1990 Britton, N.L.; Rusby, H.H. [46] K001494891 Yes
Jan 1, 1982 Davis, E.W.; Franquemont, E.; Franquemont, C.; King, S.; Sperling, C. [1818] Peru K001494901 Yes
Jun 1, 1941 Eyerdam, W.J. [9069] Peru K001494900 Yes
Sep 1, 1888 Rusby, H.H. [896] K001494890 Yes
Acocks, J.P.H. [9311] South Africa K004796283 Yes
Hunziker, J.H. [1629] Argentina K003399709 Yes
Edwards, S. [3753] Ethiopia K004957191 Yes
Hoehne, W. [13827] Brazil K001210955 Yes
Pedley, L. [639] K005350572 Yes
s.coll. [179] Uruguay K003399705 Yes
[Mund] [s.n.] K004006715 Yes
Garden, J. [16261] K005350569 Yes
Gillies [s.n.] K003399707 Yes
Balfour, I.B. [s.n.] Mauritius K004795131 Yes
[5120] K003399047 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] Mauritius K004795129 Yes
Uhe, G. [1113] Norfolk Island K005350678 Yes
Savatier, L. [s.n.] K003399708 Yes
Lyall (Dr) [179] New Zealand K005350664 Yes
Fourcade, H.G. [1972] South Africa K004796274 Yes
Parker, R.N. [3774] South Africa K004796286 Yes
Uhe, G. [1345] K005350575 Yes
s.coll. [20146] Australia K005350568 Yes
Thornton, R.W. [199] K004796277 Yes
Drummond [s.n.] K005350567 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K003870141 Yes
Skottsberg, C.; Skottsberg, I. [142] K003399704 Yes
[s.n.] Jamaica K003399048 Yes
Turrill, W.B. (Dr.) [s.n.] Greece K003870135 Yes
Fernández Márquez, M.A. [2460] Spain K001611662 Yes
Coveny, R.G. [16722] Australia K005350564 Yes
[Silk] [39] South Africa K004796280 Yes
Tedd, H.G. [s.n.] K003870140 Yes
Fay, M.F. [MFF162] United Kingdom K000544465 No
Wright, C. [451] K004006714 Yes
[H5488] Haiti K003399050 Yes
Lepschi, B.J. [1960] Australia K005350574 Yes
Fischer, W. [255] Argentina K003399703 Yes
Andrews, F.W. [3537] Sudan K004957188 Yes
[s.n.] K003399049 Yes
Orchard, E.R. [509] South Africa K004796272 Yes
[2653] Jamaica K003399046 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] South Africa K004796275 Yes
Dyer, R.A. [2512] South Africa K004796284 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6673] Brazil K001210954 Yes
Leendertz, R. [398] South Africa K004796278 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K003870134 Yes
Everist, S.L.; Webb, L.J. [1405] K005350571 Yes
Stoward, F. [326] Australia K005350566 Yes
s.coll. [3925] South Africa K004796279 Yes
Dieterle, A. [588] Lesotho K004796276 Yes
Theron, G.C. [284] South Africa K004796285 Yes
Coveny, R.; Powell, J. [6540] K005350570 Yes
Meyer, F.G. [9474] Chile K003399701 Yes
Bangerter, E.B. [5029] New Zealand K005350665 Yes
Lepschi, B.J.; Lally, T.R. [2098] Australia K005350573 Yes
Lorence, D.H. [M182] Mauritius K004795130 Yes
[R.M. Lg] [s.n.] Australia K005350565 Yes
Bredemann, G.; Nieser, O. [s.n.] K003870136 Yes
s.coll. [[2231]] South Africa K004796273 Yes
Mueller [387] Brazil K001210952 Yes
s.coll. [57] Mauritius K004795132 Yes
Ruch, M. [1925] Lesotho K004796287 Yes
Lobin, W. [1572] Cabo Verde K001105494 No
Cope, T.A. [RBG 30] United Kingdom K000914264 Yes
Flanagan, H.G. [245] South Africa K004796282 Yes
Hugo, L. [1917] South Africa K004796288 Yes
Preston, T.A. [s.n.] Brazil K001210953 Yes
Sparre, B. [s.n.] Chile K003399695 Yes
Rogers, F.A. [3926] South Africa K004796281 Yes
Thulin, M.; Dahir, A.; Hassan, A. [8921] Somalia K004957190 Yes
s.coll. [7075] Uruguay K003399706 Yes
Keller, H.A.; Hildt, G. [11714] Argentina K003399702 Yes
W. Trop. K001494882 Yes
W. Trop. K001494883 Yes
W. Trop. K001494884 Yes
W. Trop. K001494885 Yes
W. Trop. K001494886 Yes
W. Trop. K001494887 Yes
W. Trop. K001494888 Yes
W. Trop. K001494889 Yes
W. Trop. K001494890 Yes
W. Trop. K001494891 Yes
W. Trop. K001494892 Yes
W. Trop. K001494893 Yes
W. Trop. K001494894 Yes
W. Trop. K001494895 Yes
W. Trop. K001494896 Yes
W. Trop. K001494897 Yes
W. Trop. K001494898 Yes
W. Trop. K001494899 Yes
W. Trop. K001494900 Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0