Genus:
Euphorbia L.

Euphorbia peplus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Somalia, Europe to W. Himalaya. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb to 25(35) cm high, glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a petiole to 1 cm long, shorter above; lamina to 25 × 15 mm, obovate, rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base, entire at the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes axillary and in terminal 3-branched umbels forking many times, with primary rays to 3.5 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts sessile, similar to the leaves but more ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia on peduncles to 1.3 mm long, 1 × 1 mm with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, 0.5 mm wide, transversely oblong with 2 horns to 0.8 mm long; lobes rounded, minute, margins ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: bracteoles linear, with minutely ciliate tips; stamens 1 mm long. Female flower: ovary glabrous; styles 0.3 mm long, joined at the base, spreading with deeply bifid apices.
sex Male
Male flowers: bracteoles linear, with minutely ciliate tips; stamens 1 mm long.
sex Female
Female flower: ovary glabrous; styles 0.3 mm long, joined at the base, spreading with deeply bifid apices.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a pedicel to 3 mm long, 2 × 2 mm, deeply 3-lobed with truncate base and with longitudinal fleshy ridges each side of the sutures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.5 × 1 mm, oblong-ovoid with longitudinal rows of deep pits, reddish-brown becoming grey; caruncle 0.3 mm across, smooth, white.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1700–3100 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Nariño, Quindío.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1700 - 3100 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
hierba de leche, leche eterna, lechero pequeño, picantico, picantina, pituya, teología, yerbaeleche

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous slender annual, branched from near the base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5–20 x 3–12 mm, petiolate, ovate to suborbicular, entire; ray-leaves like the cauline, but with shorter petioles; raylet-leaves smaller, slightly obliquely ovate
Ray
Rays 3, dichotomous
Morphology General Glands
Glands 4, with 2 filiform horns
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 2 x 2 mm, shallowly sulcate, smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.1–1.4 mm long, sulcate ventrally and pitted dorsally, pale grey, darker in the depressions; caruncle 0.3 mm across.
Distribution
N2 almost cosmopolitan weed, probably of Eurasian origin, nearest in Eritrea.
Ecology
Altitude range 1150 m.
Note
First record for Somalia (Madarshon at 11°02’N, 48°58’E).

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herb to 25 cm. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves obovate, to 25 × 15 mm., base cuneate, apex rounded, margin entire; petiole of lower leaves to 1 cm. long, shorter above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes axillary and in terminal 3-branched umbels forking many times, with primary rays to 3.5 cm. long; bracts sessile, similar to the leaves but more ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia on peduncles to 1.3 mm. long, 1 × 1 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, transversely oblong, 0.5 mm. broad, with 2 horns to 0.8 mm. long; lobes rounded, minute, margins ciliate.
sex Male
Male flowers:bracteoles linear, tips minutely ciliate; stamens 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower:styles 0.3 mm. long, joined at the base, spreading, bifid for 2/3. Male flowers:bracteoles linear, tips minutely ciliate; stamens 1 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower:styles 0.3 mm. long, joined at the base, spreading, bifid for 2/3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a pedicel to 3 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, with truncate base, 2 × 2 mm., with longitudinal fleshy ridges each side of the sutures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong-ovoid, 1.5 × 1 mm., reddish brown becoming grey, with longitudinal rows of deep pits and a smooth white caruncle 0.3 mm. across.
Habitat
Weed of cultivation and disturbed ground, in shade; 1700–2100 m.
Distribution
T4 T7 originating from Europe and E. Asia, a weed of world-wide temperate and subtropical zones including South Africa, and fairly recently introduced into Zimbabwe and Sudan

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Ascension, Assam, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Denmark, Easter Is., Ecuador, Free State, Føroyar, Great Britain, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Euphorbia peplus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 10, 2011 Day, C.D. [27], Turkey K000341668 No
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6673], Brazil K001210954 Yes
Lobin, W. [1572], Cape Verde K001105494 No
Mueller [387], Brazil K001210952 Yes
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001210953 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 30], Great Britain K000914264 Yes
Hoehne, W. [13827], Brazil K001210955 Yes
W. Trop. K001494882 Yes
W. Trop. K001494883 Yes
W. Trop. K001494884 Yes
W. Trop. K001494885 Yes
W. Trop. K001494886 Yes
W. Trop. K001494887 Yes
W. Trop. K001494888 Yes
W. Trop. K001494889 Yes
W. Trop. K001494890 Yes
W. Trop. K001494891 Yes
W. Trop. K001494892 Yes
W. Trop. K001494893 Yes
W. Trop. K001494894 Yes
W. Trop. K001494895 Yes
W. Trop. K001494896 Yes
W. Trop. K001494897 Yes
W. Trop. K001494898 Yes
W. Trop. K001494899 Yes
W. Trop. K001494900 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes. epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili. Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ryabinina, Z.N. & Knyazev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 454 (1958).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 72 (1952).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753).
  • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 255 (1915).

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0