Euphorbia tirucalli L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 452 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Madagascar. It is a semisucculent shrub or tree and grows primarily in the desert or dry shrubland biome. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Madagascar

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Mexico Central, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wake I., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Bruyns, P.V. (2022). Euphorbia in Southern Africa 2: 475-985. Springer.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Caminho, J., Mutemba, L., Matusse, E., Osborne, J., Wursten, B., Burrows, J., Cianciullo, S., Malatesta, L. & Attorre, F. (2022). An updated checklist of Mozambique’s vascular plants. PhytoKeys 189: 61-80.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F). Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Möller, A. & Becker, R. (2019). Field guide to the succulent Euphorbias of Southern Africa: 1-320. BRIZA.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Rebmann, N. (2007). Les Euphorbes de Madagascar. Succulentes Spécial: 1-48.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of the Cayman Islands

  • L., Sp. Pl. 1: 452 (1753).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). http://collectaneabotanica.revistas.csic.es/index.php/collectaneabotanica/article/view/280/391. epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bruyns, P.V. (2022). Euphorbia in Southern Africa 2: 475-985. Springer.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation. Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati. Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 96 (1862).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 460 (1958).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 201 (1961).
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 113 (1962).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 199 (1962).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 211 (1949).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 452 (1753).
  • Leach in Kirkia 9: 69 (1973).
  • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 293 (1915).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 255 (1949).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 478 (1948).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 128 (1952).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6750] Madagascar K000185114 Yes
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6995] Madagascar K000185112 Yes
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6950] Madagascar K000185113 Yes
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463] Zimbabwe K000317983 Yes
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14129B] South Africa K000317981 Yes
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463] Zimbabwe K000317982 Yes
Oct 1, 1959 Gossweiler [474] Angola K000253093 Syntype Yes
Oct 1, 1959 Rattray [s.n.] Angola K000253094 Syntype Yes
Oct 1, 1959 Welwitsch [630] Angola K000253092 Type Yes
Kirk, J. [s.n.] Mozambique K000253090 Syntype Yes
Tweedie [2101] Kenya K:SPC-02608.000 No
Faulkner, H. [3014] Tanzania K:SPC-25792.000 No
Faulkner, H. [3088] Tanzania K:SPC-25827.000 No
Phillipson, P.B. [2310] Madagascar K000185124 Yes
Phillipson, P.B. [2388] Madagascar K000185126 Yes
Andrews, F.W. [Bally 12393] Sudan K:SPC-02609.000 No
Leach, L.C.; Bayliss [11885] Mozambique K000317984 Yes
Archbold, M.E. [880] Tanzania K:SPC-33210.000 No
Speke; Grant Tanzania K000252989 Type Yes
Andrianjafy, N.M. [1681] Madagascar K001553947 Yes
Scott, L. [s.n.] Malawi K000253091 Type Yes
Gossweiler, J. [474] Angola K:SPC-02610.000 No
Wild, H. [4712] Zimbabwe K:SPC-05232.000 No
Faulkner, H. [1548] Tanzania K:SPC-05231.000 No
Phillipson, P.B. [2480] Madagascar K000185125 Yes
Busse, W. [250] Tanzania K000252988 Type Yes
Ash [459] Ethiopia K:SPC-26332.030 No
Drummond, R.B.; Hemsley, J.H. [3330] Tanzania K:SPC-02607.000 No
Bally, P.R.O. [E14] Kenya K:SPC-16754.000 No
[L.Muriel] [L 67] K000252854 Type Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.; Taylor, P. [7289] Tanzania K:SPC-04141.000 No
Eyles, F. Zimbabwe K:SPC-16755.000 No
Drummond, R.B.; Hemsley, J.H. [3365] Tanzania K:SPC-04144.000 No
Greenway, P.J. [6655] Tanzania K:SPC-02606.000 No
Lighthouse Keeper Mozambique K:SPC-16757.000 No

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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
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    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
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    • Copyright applied to individual images
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