Genus:
Hevea Aubl.

Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg.

Hevea brasiliensis is native to Brazil (parts of the Amazon Basin and Matto Grosso) and the Guianas, but most of the world's rubber comes from plantations in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Although rubber is still tapped from wild trees in the Amazon basin, production in South American plantations is hampered by a fungal disease known as South American leaf blight.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 400 m.; Amazonia, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Hevea brasiliensis, better known as the rubber tree, is the primary source of natural rubber.

Hevea brasiliensis is native to Brazil (parts of the Amazon Basin and Matto Grosso) and the Guianas, but most of the world's rubber comes from plantations in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Although rubber is still tapped from wild trees in the Amazon basin, production in South American plantations is hampered by a fungal disease known as South American leaf blight.

The genus Hevea is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. Only three species of the genus yield usable rubber, Hevea brasiliensis, Hevea guianensis and Hevea benthamiana. Other species have too high a ratio of resin to rubber in their latex. Hevea brasiliensis is the only species planted commercially and is the primary source of natural rubber.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Wild and semi-wild Hevea brasiliensis is found in the northern part of South America, from Brazil to Venezuela, and Colombia to Peru and Bolivia. Rubber is now grown in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, China, India and Papua New Guinea in Asia, as well as in Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Liberia and Gabon in Africa.

Description

Hevea brasiliensis is a deciduous tree, typically 30-40 m tall, though usually 15-25 m tall in cultivation, with a leafy crown. The trunk is cylindrical, but frequently swollen towards the base, and the bark is pale to dark brown with a smooth surface and the inner bark pale brown with abundant white or cream coloured latex. The leaves are in spirals and with three leaflets. The flowers are small with no petals, bright or cream-yellow in colour and extremely pungent.They are either male or female but both are found in the same inflorescence. The fruit is an exploding 3-lobed capsule.

In the wild, trees may grow to over 40 m and live for 100 years, but in plantations they rarely exceed 25 m because growth is reduced by tapping for rubber. Plantation trees are usually replanted after 25-35 years when yields fall to an uneconomic level.

Uses

The milky latex of Hevea brasiliensis , produced by a specialised secretory system in the phloem, is the raw material for natural rubber. The latex is a renewable resource that can be sustainably tapped without harming the tree. Rubber is water-resistant, does not conduct electricity, is durable and most importantly, is highly elastic. These useful properties are due to the large and complex molecular structure of rubber.

Rubber has been used for centuries, but its versatility was greatly improved by a process developed in the nineteenth century, vulcanisation, in which the rubber is treated with sulphur and heat. Natural rubber is used in thousands of ways, from bouncing balls, boots, balloons and latex gloves, to engineering and industrial applications. Natural rubber is more suitable than synthetic rubber for the tyres of aircraft and space shuttles.

Felled plantation trees are used for timber - rubberwood - which has important uses in the furniture industry. The seeds contain oil that can be used in making paints and soaps.

Cultivation

Rubber grows best at daytime temperatures of 26°- 28° with a well distributed annual rainfall of 2,000 - 3,000 mm, and up to an altitude of c. 500 m.It will perform well on most soils as long as there is adequate drainage. These conditions are found within 10° N&S of the Equator, although it is cultivated successfully much further north in Mexico, Guatemala and China, and south to near Sao Paulo, Brazil.

This is a tropical tree and requires hot temperatures, high humidity and well-drained, fertile soils. Fruits burst open when they are ripe and the seeds are scattered up to 33 m from the tree. Seed viability drops rapidly as soon as fruits are collected. Best results are obtained with fresh seed grown in partial shade.

This species is difficult to propagate from cuttings; commercial plantations use bud-grafting to propagate plants.

This species at Kew

Two specimens of Hevea brasiliensis can be seen growing in the Palm House at Kew.

Distribution
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
Ecology
Rubber is a crop of the humid lowland tropics between 6ºN and 6ºS.
Conservation
Least Concern
Hazards

Proteins present in natural rubber latex may cause allergic reactions.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Pacific. Elevation range: 100–400 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Boyacá, Caquetá, Guainía, Nariño, Vaupés.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Caucho, Caucho de pará, Cuacho amazónico, Hule, Lechoso, Siringa

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 100 - 400 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 20 m tall.
Morphology General Bark
Bark pale grey.
Morphology Branches
Branches ± erect.
Morphology Twigs
Twigs glabrous.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 1 mm long, lanceolate.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles 6–20(30) cm long, glabrous; petiolules 1–1.5 cm long; petiole gland reniform; leaflets 7–20(25) × 3–8(10) cm, the median leaflet larger than the others, obovate to elliptic, acuminate at the apex, attenuate or cuneate at the base, chartaceous, glabrous above and beneath, somewhat glaucous beneath; midrib impressed above, prominent beneath; lateral nerves in 15–25 pairs, looped just within the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences up to 20 cm long, subterminal below the apical tuft of leaves; axis sparingly pubescent; bracts 0.5 mm long, deltate, fugacious.
sex Male
Male flowers: buds ovoid, acuminate; calyx lobes 2 × 0.5 mm, narrowly lanceolate, somewhat contorted, acuminate, subacute, tomentellous; tube 1 mm long; disk ± annular; staminal column 1.5 mm high, anthers 10, in 2 whorls of 5; pistillode narrowly conical, puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: buds as in the male; calyx lobes larger than in the male, otherwise similar; tube 2 mm long; disk scarcely visible; ovary 2 × 2 mm, subglobose, minutely papillose; stigmas 0.3 mm long, ± sessile, grooved. Male flowers: buds ovoid, acuminate; calyx lobes 2 × 0.5 mm, narrowly lanceolate, somewhat contorted, acuminate, subacute, tomentellous; tube 1 mm long; disk ± annular; staminal column 1.5 mm high, anthers 10, in 2 whorls of 5; pistillode narrowly conical, puberulous.
sex Female
Female flowers: buds as in the male; calyx lobes larger than in the male, otherwise similar; tube 2 mm long; disk scarcely visible; ovary 2 × 2 mm, subglobose, minutely papillose; stigmas 0.3 mm long, ± sessile, grooved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits c. 4 × 4.5 cm, shallowly trigonous, glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.3 × 1.5 cm, ovoid-cylindric, pale grey, mottled and streaked with darker grey.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
caucho, caucho amazónico, caucho de Pará, hule, lechoso, siringa

[KSP]
Use
The milky latex of Hevea brasiliensis is the raw material for natural rubber.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Gums Resins
Stems - Resins are extracted from the stems for waterproofing cloth (Linares et al. 2008).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Costa Rica, Fiji, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Southwest, Nicobar Is., Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Zaïre

English
Rubber tree
Spanish
Caucho blanco, jeve fino, caucho.

Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2009 Sasaki, D. [2466], Mato Grosso K000578952 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Sasaki, D. [2188], Mato Grosso K000578339 Yes
Jan 1, 1978 RS [Spruce] [136], Para K000572953 Yes
Aug 1, 1950 Glaziou, M. [8921], Rio de Janeiro K000716177 Yes
Guyana 16763.000 No
18791.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [111], Bolivia 54698.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [130], Bolivia 54760.000 No
Pennington, R.T. [81], Bolivia 56623.000 No
Schultes, R.E. [8054], Brazil K001205490 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8662], Brazil K001205494 Yes
Schultes, R. [6492], Brazil K001205501 Yes
Prance, G.T. [2357], Brazil K001205510 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [5468], Brazil K001205530 Yes
Burchell [9826], Brazil K001205481 Yes
Schultes, R. [6481], Brazil K001205503 Yes
Ule, E. [5893], Brazil K001205456 Yes
Wickham, R.W. [s.n.], Brazil K001205484 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20616], Brazil K001205528 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10265], Brazil K001205517 Yes
Glaziou [4911], Brazil K001205513 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001205472 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10369], Brazil K001205474 Yes
Vaughan, D.T.G. [74], Brazil K001205468 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20617], Brazil K001205525 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205460 Yes
Ducke, A. [21958], Brazil K001205455 Yes
Burchell [10034], Brazil K001205479 Yes
Burchell [9377], Brazil K001205482 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8660], Brazil K001205451 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6491], Brazil K001205466 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10292], Brazil K001205497 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20617], Brazil K001205526 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10290], Brazil K001205498 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20520], Brazil K001205523 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6482], Brazil K001205500 Yes
Schultes, R. [10264], Brazil K001205515 Yes
Ule, E. [9550], Brazil K001205529 Yes
Spruce [18], Brazil K001205457 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001205464 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [5985], Brazil K001205471 Yes
Burchell [10034], Brazil K001205483 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001205519 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8082], Brazil K001205452 Yes
Thomas, D.W. [3091], Cameroon K000008268 No
Ule, E. [5353], Brazil K001205458 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10264], Brazil K001205453 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [5468], Brazil K001205531 Yes
s.coll. [23209] K001205459 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205487 Yes
Vaughan, D.G. [71], Brazil K001205462 Yes
Archer, W.A. [8085], Brazil K001205522 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8083/a], Brazil K001205508 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6494], Brazil K001205514 Yes
Prance, G.T. [8037], Brazil K001205511 Yes
Poisson, E. [1899/1901], Brazil K001205463 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001205473 Yes
Schultes, R. [10267], Brazil K001205491 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8661], Brazil K001205488 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8658], Brazil K001205489 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8083], Brazil K001205512 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8662], Brazil K001205495 Yes
Anderson, A.B. [1083], Brazil K001205493 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8082], Brazil K001205509 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6483], Brazil K001205499 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6497], Brazil K001205504 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [5], Brazil K001205521 Yes
Evans, R. [6496], Brazil K001205502 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6530], Brazil K001205465 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [1627], Brazil K001205518 Yes
Baker, C.F. [53], Brazil K001205478 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6494], Brazil K001205486 Yes
Baker, C. [53], Brazil K001205475 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10276], Brazil K001205507 Yes
Poisson, E. [s.n.], Brazil K001205476 Yes
Schultes, R. [6534], Brazil K001205496 Yes
Burchell [9377/10034], Brazil K001205480 Yes
Prance, G.T. [22958], Brazil K001205621 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [10290], Brazil K001205505 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6530], Brazil K001205485 Yes
Vaughan, D.G. [64], Brazil K001205467 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6113], Colombia K001205516 Yes
Poisson, E. [s.n.], Brazil K001205461 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001205520 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8057], Brazil K001205469 Yes
Thomas, W. [3811], Brazil K001205492 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205477 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8063], Brazil K001205470 Yes
Glaziou [8921], Brazil K001205506 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20618], Brazil K001205527 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [20520], Brazil K001205524 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [8083], Brazil K001205454 Yes
Peru K000111702 Yes
Bolivia K001378537 Yes
Bolivia K001378538 Yes
Bolivia K001378539 Yes
Bolivia K001378540 Yes
Bolivia K001378541 Yes
Bolivia K001378542 Yes
Bolivia K001378543 Yes
Bolivia K001378544 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501128 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501129 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501130 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501131 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501132 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501133 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501134 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501135 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501136 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501137 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501139 Yes
Colombia K001501142 Yes
Colombia K001501143 Yes
Colombia K001501144 Yes
Colombia K001501145 Yes
Colombia K001501146 Yes
Colombia K001501147 Yes
Colombia K001501148 Yes
Colombia K001501149 Yes
Colombia (Amaonas) K001501150 Yes
Colombia (Amaonas) K001501151 Yes
Colombia (Amaonas) K001501152 Yes
Colombia (Amaonas) K001501153 Yes
Colombia K001501154 Yes
Colombia K001501155 Yes
Colombia K001501156 Yes
Colombia K001501157 Yes
Colombia K001501158 Yes
Colombia K001501159 Yes
Colombia K001501160 Yes
Colombia K001501161 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501162 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501163 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501164 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501165 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501166 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501167 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501168 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501169 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501170 Yes
Colombia (Amazonas) K001501171 Yes
Ecuador K001501172 Yes

First published in Linnaea 34: 204 (1865)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Sam, H.V. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2004). Revision of Annesijoa, Elateriospermum and the Introduced species of Hevea in Malesia (Euphorbiaceae) Blumea 49: 425-440.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

  • Ghani, M.N.A. & Wessel, M. (2000). Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Juss.) Müll.Arg. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 18: Plants Producing Exudates, ed. E. Boer & A. B. Ella, pp. 73-82. Backhuys Publisher, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • International Rubber Research and Development Board (IRRDB) (2006). Portrait of the global rubber industry. IRRDB, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Schultes, R. E. (1990). A brief taxonomic view of the genus. Malaysian Rubber Research and Development Board Monograph no.14.
  • Webster, C.C. & Baulkwill, W.J. ed. 1989. Rubber. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, U.K.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • J. H. Holland, The Useful Plants of Nigeria, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series IX, 4: 585
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 743

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Bernal, R., S.R. Gradstein & M. Celis (eds.). 2019. Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/es/
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Kew Species Profiles

    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/