Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark.

This species is accepted, and its native range is SW. Hainan, Indo-China to Malesia.

[KBu]

Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. 2009. Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9155-x

Conservation
Least Concern (LC): extent of occurrence exceeds 20,000 km2.
Distribution
From Thailand, Andaman Islands and the Chinese Islands of Hainan, south to Sumatera, Java, and Timor, and east to the Philippines.
Ecology
Evergreen forest understorey on sand or limestone; 0 – 400 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb to subshrub, ascendant to erect, monoecious, 0.1 – 0.5 m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade ovate to lanceolate or obovate, basally long attenuate to acute, sometimes obtuse, apically obtuse to acute, (1.5) 2.5 – 7 (10) × (0.7) 1.2 – 2 (3.2) cm, 1 – 3.5 times longer than wide, membranaceous to thin chartaceous, drying discolorous to concolorous reddish to yellowish or greyish green, glabrous to hirsute adaxially, hirsute abaxially, margin hirsute; midvein adaxially flat, abaxially prominent, secondary veins 4 – 6 pairs, adaxially flat, abaxially flat to prominent
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 5 – 20 × 0.5 – 0.8 mm, ½ - ⅙ of leaf blade length, hirsute
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules deltoid to subulate, basally not auriculate, apically acute, ferrugineous to almost black, 1 – 2.5 × 0.2 – 0.6 mm, glabrous to hirsute, margin entire, ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers 1 – 4 per fascicle, 2 – 4 × 3 – 6 mm, 3 – 4 times larger than male, rotate Male flowers 1 – 4 (rarely up to 6) per fascicle, 0.8 – 1.3 × 1.5 – 2.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, 0.8 – 1.5 mm long; filaments 0.7 – 1.3 mm long; anthers 0.2 – 0.3 × 0.2 – 0.25 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, ovate to obovate or oblong, apically acute to cuspidate, 1.5 – 3 × 1 – 2 mm, 0 – 3-veined, hirsute, margin entire, hirsute, eglandular Fruiting sepals accrescent to 2 – 6 × 1 – 3.5 mm Sepals 5, obovate to oblong, apically rounded, 1 – 1.6 × 0.6 – 1 mm, membranaceous, 0 – 3-veined, hirsute outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, glabrous to ciliate, eglandular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, linear to obovate, apically rounded, 0.1 – 0.5 × 0.1 – 0.2 mm, extending to ½ length of disc to slightly beyond disc, without veins, glabrous Petals 5, obovate to linear, apically rounded, 0.6 – 1.2 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, ½ - ¾ of sepal length, membranaceous, 0 – 1-veined, glabrous on both sides, margin entire to erose, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc bilobed for ⅘ - ¾ of length, lobes apically truncate to acute, 0.7 – 1.2 × 0.1 – 0.2 mm, ⅔ as long to slightly shorter than sepals, slightly longer or shorter than petals Disc bilobed for ½ - ¾ of length, 0.3 – 0.8 × 0.2 – 0.4 mm, apically acute to truncate, erose or crenulate, up to ¼ of sepal length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 3-locular, densely hirsute; styles 3, 0.6 – 1 mm long, free, glabrous to basally hirsute; stigmas dilated to capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistillodes
Pistillode trilobed for ¼ of length or almost to base, 0.35 – 0.8 mm long, ¼ - ¾ of stamen length, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel 2 – 5 mm long, not articulate, hirsute Fruiting pedicel 5 – 9 mm long Pedicel 4 – 8 × less than 1.5 mm, articulate just above base, glabrous to hirsute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Columella widest at base, apically linear, 1 – 1.5 × c. 0.5 mm Fruit 1.5 – 2 × 3 – 4.5 mm, smooth to faintly reticulate, hirsute, drying red brown to orange brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, male inflorescence axis 0 – 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts as stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds triquetrous, 1.2 – 1.9 × 1 – 1.5 × 1 – 1.5 mm, without appendages, transversely to irregularly ridged in the same seed, orange to brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Embryo
Embryo with radicle as long as cotyledons or slightly longer
Morphology Twigs
Twigs terete to bilaterally flattened, hirsute, light green to brown
Note
The variable and widespread Leptopus australis can be immediately distinguished from other species of Leptopus by its smaller stature, dense indumentum, short female pedicels, small orange brown fruit and often attenuate leaf bases. L. australis and L. robinsonii are the only two species of Leptopus with deeply ridged seed. L. hirtus is a formal synonym of L. australis here for the first time, although this has been suggested in the past. Henderson (1939) stated that both Andrachne calcarea and A. hirta “appear to be merely forms” of L. australis. Airy Shaw (1964) tentatively agreed but eight years later (Airy Shaw 1971a publ. 1972) treated L. calcareus separately, noting that “it may be no more than a distinct ecotype” of L. australis. Van Welzen & Chayamarit (2007) treated L. calcareus as a synonym of L. australis.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Borneo, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2009 Sumathi, R. [17362], Andaman Is K000254333 isotype Yes
Aug 1, 2007 Dr King's collector [2383], Peninsular Malaysia K000186362 No
Aug 1, 2007 Dr King's collector [2383], Peninsular Malaysia K000186363 No
Aug 1, 2007 Ridley, H.N. [14883], Malaysia K000186364 holotype Yes
Aug 1, 2007 Best, G.A. [21233], Peninsular Malaysia K000186365 No
Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [22839], Peninsular Malaysia K000186366 No
Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [23824], Peninsular Malaysia K000186367 No
Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [19513], Malaysia K000186368 No
Aug 1, 2007 Md. Nur [12126], Peninsular Malaysia K000186369 No
Aug 1, 2007 Kiah [35249], Peninsular Malaysia K000186370 No
Aug 1, 2007 Nauen, J.C. [38012], Peninsular Malaysia K000186371 No
Aug 1, 2007 Corner, E.J.H. [37802], Peninsular Malaysia K000186372 No
Aug 1, 2007 Robinson, H.C. [6201], Malaysia K000186373 paratype Yes
Aug 1, 2007 Ridley, H.N. [8203], Malaysia K000186374 paratype Yes
Aug 1, 2007 Curtis, C. [2540], Peninsular Malaysia K000186375 No
Aug 1, 2007 FSP, Ng [FRI 27045], Peninsular Malaysia K000186376 No
Aug 1, 2007 Pierre, L. [6257], Indo-China K000186393 No
Aug 1, 2007 Annandale, N. [1835], Thailand K000186396 lectotype Yes
Aug 1, 2007 Beaman, J.H. [10122], Sabah K000186405 No
Aug 1, 2007 Backer, C.A. [10053], Jawa K000186406 No
Aug 1, 2007 Dilmy, A. [1046], Bali K000186407 No
Aug 1, 2007 Buwalda, P. [4194], Maluku K000186410 No
Aug 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1608], Philippines K000186411 No
Aug 1, 2007 McGregor, R.C. [20009], Philippines K000186413 No
Aug 1, 2007 Sulit, M. D. [17048], Philippines K000186414 No
Aug 1, 2007 Merrill, E.D. [11538], Philippines K000186415 No
Aug 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1528], Philippines K000186416 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1528], Philippines K000186417 isotype Yes
Jul 1, 2002 Middleton, D.J. [199], Thailand K000187438 No
Jun 26, 2003 Collins, D.J. [1884], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186390 No
Jun 26, 2003 Rabil [315], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186398 No
Jun 23, 2003 Marcan, A. [1210], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186377 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [4155], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186378 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [2045], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186379 No
Allum? [8810], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186380 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [9261], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186381 No
Jaray [49], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186382 No
Chermsirivathana, C. [1500], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186383 No
s.coll. [1030], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186384 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [10871], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186385 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [11193], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186386 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [19841], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186388 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [17892], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186389 No
Smitinand, T. [3167], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186387 No
Larsen, K. [9829], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186391 No
Geesink, R. [6757], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186392 No
Poilane, M. [19723] Andrachne australis K000186394 No
Squires, R.W. [893], Vietnam Andrachne australis K000186395 No
Jun 26, 2003 Kerr, A.F.G. [15348], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186399 No
Kerr, A.F.G. [19284], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186400 No
Charoenphol, Ch. [3636], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186401 No
Larsen, K. [21260], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186402 No

First published in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 270 (1960)

Accepted by

  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Andrachne australis.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0