Genus:
Manihot Mill.

Manihot esculenta Crantz

This species is accepted, and its native range is W. South America to Brazil. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 50–1550 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Magdalena, Meta, Quindío, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Shrub.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Ãicùibabù (Cubeo), Ãicùibajavabo (Cubeo), Buii, Caá, Cui, Manyok, Newajü (Sikuani), Newajüsinae (Sikuani), Newaüibü (Sikuani), Pari, Quii

[FWTA]

Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A shrub 6–10 ft. high, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Digitate leaves glaucous beneath
Morphology Roots
Tuberous roots
Note
Very variable in colour of bark, tint of foliage, etc. Cassava, a cultivated food-plant; native of Brazil. (See Appendix, p. 150.)

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Little-branched woody herb up to 5 m high; roots large, fusiform, starchy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–5(–7)-lobed, often not peltate, lobes oblanceolate, 6–14(–17) x 1–6 cm, tip acuminate, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Raceme branched, 8–11 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower: pedicel 7 mm extending to 25 mm; sepals 10 x 5 mm; styles and stigmas looking like bunch of grapes Male flower: pedicel 5 mm long, decurved; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, tube 6 mm long, lobes 6 x 4 mm, greenish orange and crimson, sometimes dark-veined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ellipsoidal to subglobose, 15–17 x 15 mm, rugulose, 6-winged, wings undulate-subcrenate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± 5-sided, 11 x 5.5 x 3.5 mm, pale grey, sometimes mottled; caruncle 3 mm wide.
Distribution
Grown at least in central and southern Somalia; native of eastern tropical South America
Vernacular
Cassava (English); moxoggo (Somali).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 1550 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
botón, buñuelo, casanareña, hoja de canangucha, lengüevenado, loqueta, mandioca, manicuera, mejorada, monablanca, monita, nolí, palo de yuca, patetórtola, riogrande, sardinaprieta, sardinatera, tengañate, torrana, venezolana, yuca, yuca achicaiza, yuca agria, yuca aguabajo, yuca aguantaparao, yuca ajiaco, yuca ajiaquera, yuca algodón, yuca algodona, yuca almidona, yuca almirable, yuca amarga, yuca amarilla, yuca amarillo, yuca americana, yuca andaquí, yuca andaquiseña, yuca anorí, yuca antioqueña, yuca antoninera, yuca aparecida, yuca apia, yuca arbolona, yuca ariza, yuca aromay amarilla, yuca arracacha, yuca arracachita, yuca arrobera, yuca arroceña, yuca auresana, yuca aurora, yuca ayaita, yuca azucena, yuca azulita, yuca bajuna, yuca ballestera, yuca balsamita, yuca barranquilla, yuca barranquillera, yuca batea, yuca bizcochuelo, yuca blanca, yuca blancaflor, yuca blancamona, yuca blancargodón, yuca blancaymona, yuca blanquita, yuca bogotana, yuca botón, yuca botón chamizo, yuca botón grande, yuca botona, yuca botonchiquito, yuca botoncito, yuca botonmorao, yuca brava, yuca brava amarilla, yuca brava brasileña, yuca brava de anciana, yuca brava de andoque, yuca brava de bombona, yuca brava de bora, yuca brava de borugo, yuca brava de caloche, yuca brava de chontaduro, yuca brava de garza, yuca brava de guamo, yuca brava de hacha, yuca brava de hormiga, yuca brava de luna, yuca brava de mico erizo, yuca brava de piedra, yuca brava morada, yuca brava negra, yuca buñuelo, yuca burra, yuca cabecevaca, yuca cácota, yuca cacuta, yuca cácuta, yuca cadena, yuca cadeneta, yuca calamar, yuca cálcula, yuca calita, yuca camarón, yuca candelita, yuca canoa, yuca cantaria, yuca cañoviejo, yuca carilla, yuca carlanqueña, yuca carmeleña, yuca carmelita, yuca cartagena, yuca casanareña, yuca cascajaleña, yuca cascarilla, yuca cascarita, yuca cascarona, yuca casposa, yuca cataquera, yuca caucana, yuca caucanita, yuca ceiba, yuca ceibita, yuca ceraverdosa, yuca cerruna, yuca chamiza, yuca chanchira, yuca chaparraluna, yuca charola, yuca chibolera, yuca chicoraluna, yuca chilaca, yuca chilacoa, yuca chilacosa, yuca chilanga, yuca chilapa, yuca chile, yuca chinchana, yuca chinera, yuca chingalé, yuca chiquita, yuca chirosa, yuca chitete, yuca cholupa, yuca chúcura, yuca chula, yuca chulita, yuca coclí, yuca cogollicosido, yuca cogollimorada, yuca cogollinegra, yuca cogollocosío, yuca cogollomorao, yuca coiba, yuca cojón, yuca cojonga, yuca colombiana, yuca colorada, yuca compaconce, yuca común, yuca conchaeguamo, yuca conchirrosá, yuca conga, yuca coralrosada, yuca costeña, yuca costera amarilla, yuca crespa, yuca criollita, yuca cucubeña, yuca cucuteña, yuca cuentuna, yuca culobajito, yuca cunchiná, yuca cundaya, yuca cundayuna, yuca de año, yuca de asaí, yuca de boa, yuca de boruga, yuca de brasil, yuca de chontaduro, yuca de comer, yuca de comer aguatera, yuca de comer asaí, yuca de comer avelino, yuca de comer bajita, yuca de comer de avelino, yuca de comer de borugo, yuca de comer de caimán, yuca de comer de camarón, yuca de comer de morrocoy, yuca de comer de paloma, yuca de comer del Putumayo, yuca de comer negra, yuca de guacharaca, yuca de gusano de siringa, yuca de hormiga, yuca de huevo, yuca de la garza, yuca de manicuera, yuca de muchilero, yuca de pájaro verde, yuca de paloma, yuca de pato, yuca de paujil, yuca de pivicho, yuca de plátano, yuca de puerco espín, yuca de puerco espín real, yuca de rayar de bora, yuca de sapo, yuca de seis, yuca de trueno, yuca de venado rojo, yuca dedito, yuca dominico, yuca dulce, yuca dulce amarilla, yuca dulce de luna, yuca dulce de mico erizo, yuca dulce de pintadillo, yuca dulce de rojo, yuca dulce de tomar, yuca dulce manicuera, yuca dulce roja, yuca édsida, yuca enana, yuca enredatórtola, yuca espadita, yuca española, yuca estrellita, yuca exquisita, yuca extranjera, yuca fina, yuca firme, yuca florenciana, yuca florendera, yuca fraicanita, yuca gallinacito, yuca gallinaza, yuca gallinazo, yuca garagoa, yuca garza, yuca girona, yuca gitana, yuca golera, yuca golupa, yuca gruesana, yuca guacharaca, yuca guaduita, yuca guajiba colorada, yuca guajiba negra, yuca guamalera, yuca guamoquín, yuca guandoya, yuca guapita, yuca guaruma, yuca guarumera, yuca guata, yuca guatarumba, yuca hinchacatabre, yuca hogaviejo, yuca hojarrajada, yuca holandesa, yuca hormiga, yuca horquetilla, yuca ifraín, yuca imberca, yuca indiana, yuca indiecita, yuca inglesa, yuca itagüiseña, yuca jagüita, yuca jardín, yuca jayada, yuca jime, yuca joroba, yuca juanamarilla, yuca la de Dios, yuca lana, yuca lancetilla, yuca larga de comer, yuca lengüepisco, yuca lengüevenado, yuca liberalita, yuca ligerita, yuca llanera, yuca llanera blanca, yuca llenacatabre, yuca llenera, yuca lobanilla, yuca lombriz, yuca loqueta, yuca loriqueña, yuca loriquera, yuca macanilla, yuca majatera, yuca manteca, yuca mantequilla, yuca mantuana, yuca marialuca, yuca mariaprieta, yuca marranera, yuca martina, yuca marucha, yuca mataindio, yuca matambre, yuca medina, yuca mejía, yuca mejorada, yuca mestiza, yuca mocuana, yuca mojonera, yuca mojosa, yuca momposina, yuca mona, yuca mona blanca, yuca monablanca, yuca monagruesana, yuca monamarilla, yuca monavieja, yuca monchalera, yuca moniblanca, yuca monita, yuca montañera, yuca montero, yuca montuna, yuca morada, yuca moralera, yuca muchachamona, yuca mulata, yuca naranjaleña, yuca negra, yuca negra prieta, yuca negrita, yuca negrita bajera, yuca noemí, yuca notesebes, yuca ocalita, yuca ocañera, yuca ojona, yuca oroba, yuca orobá, yuca orobón, yuca oromá, yuca pablina, yuca pajarita, yuca pajita, yuca palanca, yuca palanqueña, yuca palestina, yuca paliblanca, yuca palicolorada, yuca palinegra, yuca paliverde, yuca palizada, yuca palmirana, yuca palmireña, yuca paloma, yuca palomita, yuca palonegro, yuca paloverde, yuca pampaundía, yuca pandeazúcar, yuca pandelnorte, yuca papayuela, yuca pargatera, yuca pata de palomo, yuca patadecoclí, yuca patadegallina, yuca patecoclí, yuca patepaloma, yuca patepava, yuca patesura, yuca patetórtola, yuca patezamuro, yuca paticaetórtola, yuca patoja, yuca patojita, yuca paujil, yuca pava, yuca pavarandoseña, yuca pebeta, yuca peñaranda, yuca peñera, yuca peñonera, yuca picoepaloma, yuca pie de paloma, yuca pieperdiz, yuca piñonera, yuca piragua, yuca playera, yuca playonera, yuca pomarrosa, yuca porencima, yuca porlopronto, yuca portachueleña, yuca potrerana, yuca prietabajera, yuca primorosa, yuca puertana, yuca puntadespada, yuca puntelanza, yuca quebraleña, yuca quiroseña, yuca quísquita, yuca racima, yuca rallador, yuca ramirana, yuca ramuda, yuca rayada, yuca reglana, yuca reinosa, yuca rejona, yuca rejona blanca, yuca rejona colorada, yuca remediana, yuca renogría, yuca riana, yuca rianita, yuca riñonera, yuca riogrande, yuca roble, yuca rocera, yuca sabanilla, yuca sabrosita, yuca samaneña, yuca sampedra, yuca sampedrita blanca, yuca sampedrón, yuca sanantoniuna, yuca sangermana, yuca santanderiana, yuca santanera, yuca santera, yuca sardina, yuca sardina blanca, yuca sardina negra, yuca sardinaprieta, yuca sardinata, yuca sardinatera, yuca sardinón, yuca sata, yuca sauza, yuca sebo de Cuba, yuca segoviana, yuca seismeses, yuca seismesuna, yuca señorita, yuca sietecuera, yuca sietemesina, yuca sietemesuna, yuca sinsabel, yuca sobatelpecho, yuca socorrana, yuca solita, yuca solita amarilla, yuca sotela, yuca sucundina, yuca surdera, yuca sureña, yuca tempranera, yuca tempranita, yuca tengañate, yuca tenzana, yuca tiendesuelo, yuca tierrepiedra, yuca tobeña, yuca tolima, yuca tolimense, yuca toludeña, yuca topada, yuca topadita, yuca torrana, yuca tortolita, yuca trujilla, yuca tucanera, yuca tulueña, yuca turra, yuca turrana, yuca ubre, yuca uresana, yuca vallenata, yuca valluna, yuca vallunita, yuca varalarga, yuca varayalpón, yuca varejón, yuca varejona, yuca varona, yuca varonia, yuca venezolana, yuca veranera, yuca verdina, yuca villapáez, yuca violeta, yuca vitoriana, yuca yaruma, yuca yema de huevo, yuca yemehuevo, yuca yolombera, yuca yucapapa, yuca zambranera, yuca zamurita, yuca zanca de pava, yuca zanqueguala, yuca zanquegüila, yuca zanquetórtola, yuca zarca, yuca zorra

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A large glabrous woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m. tall, rarely a tree 7–8 m. tall.
Morphology Roots
Root tubers up to 50 cm. long, very farinaceous.
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth, often reddish.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots glaucous greenish grey.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves deeply palmatipartite, with 3–5(–7) lobes, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, membranous-chartaceous, the lobes oblanceolate, occasionally lanceolate or obovate, 6–14(–17) cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, acute, gradually acuminate, ± attenuate towards the base, entire, with up to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, midrib scarcely prominent above or beneath, dark green above, glaucous beneath; petiole (0–)5–13(–17) cm. long.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, setaceous-acuminate, ± entire, readily deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence paniculate, 8–11 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.
sex Male
Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
sex Female
Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5–1.7 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, endocarp woody.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid, subpentagonal in section, 1.1 cm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, 3.5 mm. deep, pale grey, sometimes mottled, somewhat shiny, with a caruncle 3 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 68.
Distribution
widely cultivated for the tuberous roots which form a staple food (Cassava) in many areas in the tropics: native of E. Tropical South America K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 Z

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
A brittle-stemmed dichotomously branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall.
Morphology Roots
Root tubers up to 50 cm long, farinaceous.
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth.
Morphology General Exudate
Latex whitish, watery.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots glaucous.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 4–25 cm long, often reddish.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf blades 6–25 cm across, deeply palmatipartite, 3–7-lobed, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes very slightly peltate with 1–2 mm width of lamina below the petiole-insertion; the lobes usually oblanceolate, the median 6.5–15 × 2–6 cm, gradually acutely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, entire, sparingly pubescent near the midrib or subglabrous, dark green above, glaucous beneath; lateral nerves up to 20 pairs.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 4–5 × 2 mm, triangular-lanceolate, soon falling.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 2–11 cm long, paniculate; bracts resembling the stipules.
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal. Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
sex Female
Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 1.3–1.7 × 1.3–1.5 cm, ellipsoid-subglobose, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, greenish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.1 cm × 5.5 mm × 3.5 mm, ellipsoid, depressed-pentagonal, somewhat shiny, pale grey, sometimes mottled, caruncle 3 mm wide.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[FSOM]
Use
Widely cultivated for the edible roots which form a staple food in many tropical areas.

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre

Manihot esculenta Crantz appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476810 No
Jan 1, 2008 Sasaki, D. [1881], Mato Grosso K000578353 Yes
Apr 1, 2002 Sebsebe [5061], Cameroon K000026470 No
Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1614], Cameroon K000026469 No
Apr 1, 2002 Cable, S. [3848], Cameroon K000026471 No
Jan 1, 1998 Alexiades, M.N. [1286], Peru K000716450 Yes
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas [5025], Brazil K000809115 Yes
Jan 1, 1992 Teixeira, L.O.A. [831], Brazil K000809117 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Balée, W.L. [848], Brazil K000809116 Yes
Jan 1, 1988 Prance, G.T. [8456], Brazil K000809118 Yes
Pohl [1709], Brazil K000600387 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476812 No
Cardiel, J.M. [64], Bolivia K000716451 Yes
Cook, D.K. [149], Guyana K000809119 No
Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476811 No
Schomburgk, R.H. [426/694R], Guyana K000600388 Unknown type material Yes
Spruce, R. [825], Brazil K000600390 Unknown type material Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000600389 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476809 No
[Pohl] [1709], Brazil K000600386 Yes
W.T.S.Am. Venezuela K001500957 Yes
Peru K001500958 Yes
Peru K001500959 Yes
Peru K001500960 Yes
Peru K001500961 Yes
Colombia K001500962 Yes
Colombia K001500963 Yes
Colombia K001500964 Yes
Peru K001500965 Yes
Peru K001500966 Yes
Colombia K001500967 Yes
Colombia K001500968 Yes
Venezuela K001500969 Yes
Venezuela K001500970 Yes
Venezuela K001500971 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001500972 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001500973 Yes
Venezuela K001500974 Yes
Venezuela K001500975 Yes
Venezuela K001500976 Yes
Venezuela K001500977 Yes
Venezuela K001500978 Yes
Venezuela K001500979 Yes
Venezuela K001500980 Yes
Venezuela K001500981 Yes
Venezuela K001500982 Yes
Venezuela K001500983 Yes
Venezuela K001500984 Yes
Venezuela K001500985 Yes
Peru K001500987 Yes
Peru K001500988 Yes
Bolivia K001500989 Yes
Bolivia K001500990 Yes
n/a K001500991 Yes
n/a K001500992 Yes
n/a K001500993 Yes
Bolivia K001500994 Yes
Bolivia K001500995 Yes
Ecuador K001500996 Yes
Ecuador K001500997 Yes
Ecuador K001500998 Yes
Ecuador K001500999 Yes

First published in Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

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Flora of West Tropical Africa

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
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  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
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  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
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  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
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  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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