Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Rubia L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Old World.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, the stems sometimes woody towards the base, often stiffly hairy or with tiny prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of 4–6(–8), some of which may be stipular in origin; blades linear, lanceolate, obovate or less often cordate, often prickly
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, in axillary and/or terminal cymes, hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube ovoid or globose, the limb obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate or subcampanulate, (4–)5(–6)-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, the anthers exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc small, swollen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1–2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, erect, affixed to the septum, amphitropous; style 2-fid or styles 2, short; stigmas capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit fleshy, of 2 parts or rarely 1-locular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds suberect, with plane or concave ventral face, horny endosperm and membranous testa, adhering to the pericarp.

[FZ]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Scrambling, creeping or climbing perennial herbs, somewhat woody near the base; roots quite woody, reddish (yielding a red dye).
Morphology Stem
Stems branched, 4-angled, ± brittle, mostly beset with recurved prickles.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of (3)4–8(12), petiolate (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), blades cordate or broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate to linear, rounded to ± cordate at base or narrowed to base, with 1–5(7) prominent veins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary and/or terminal cymes, hermaphrodite, 5 (rarely 4 or 6) -merous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate to subcampanulate, greenish, yellowish green to yellow; lobes ± triangular, (long) acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary bilocular, one ovule in each chamber, crowned by a minute disk; style branches 2, joined below; stigmas capitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit fleshy, glabrous, consisting of 2 round mericarps, each with a single seed, round on dorsal side, plane to convex on ventral side; one mericarp often aborted.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or subshrubs with 4–6-angled stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in whorls of 4–8 (including leaf-like stipules), usually distinctly petiolate; blades linear to cordate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary and/or terminal cymes, mostly 5-merous, bisexual
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Calyx-lobes obsolete. Corolla rotate to shortly campanulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with 1 ovule in each cell; style 2-fid with capitate stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits fleshy, glabrous, of 2 round parts (mericarps), or 1 mericarp sometimes aborted.
Distribution
Genus of some 88 species in the Old World

[FSOM]
Use
Some species yielding a red dye from the roots.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Assam, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northwest, Austria, Bulgaria, Chile Central, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, New York, Switzerland

Rubia L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 109 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 47 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.1:109 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 47 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 109 (1753)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0