Uapaca kirkiana Müll.Arg.

First published in Flora 47: 517 (1864)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.


Native to:

Angola, Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe


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POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Ilunga wa Ilunga, E. & Meerts, P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi), Phyllanthaceae: 1-163. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
  • Meerts, P. & Farminhão, N.M. (2019). Uapaca kirkiana (Phyllanthaceae) and its relatives in the northwest of the Zambesian region. Kew Bulletin 74(38): 1-17.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi. Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kew Bulletin

  • Akinnifesi, F. K., Kwesiga, F., Mhango, J., Chilanga, T., Mkonda, A., Kadu, C. A. C., Kadzere, I., Mithofer, D., Saka, J. D. K., Sileshi, G., Ramadhani, T. & Dhliwayo, P. (2006). Towards the development of miombo fruit trees as commercial tree crops in Southern Africa. For. Trees and Livelihoods 16: 103 – 121.
  • Albuquerque, S., Brummitt, R. K. & Figueiredo, E. (2009). Typification of names based on the Angolan collections of Friedrich Welwitsch. Taxon 58(2): 641 – 646.
  • Baillon, H. (1858). Uapaca. In: H. Baillon (ed.), Étude Générale du groupe des Euphorbiacées, pp. 595 – 596. Victor Masson, Paris.
  • Coates Palgrave, M. (2005). Keith Coates Palgrave Trees of Southern Africa, 3rd ed. Struik Nature, Capetown.
  • Coates Palgrave, O. H., Coates Palgrave, K., Coates Palgrave, D. & Coates Palgrave, P. (1957). Trees of Central Africa. National Publication Trust Rhodesia and Nyassaland, Salisbury.
  • De Candolle, A. (1866). Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, Vol. 15. Victor Masson, Paris.
  • De Wildeman, E. & Staner, P. (1933). Contribution à l’étude de la flore du Katanga. Supplément 5. Comité spécial du Katanga, Bruxelles.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1926). Matériaux pour la flore forestière du Congo Belge. X. Notes préliminaires sur deux Uapaca (Euphorbiacées) du Katanga. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 45: 309 – 312.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1932). Matériaux pour la flore forestière du Congo Belge. XX. Notes préliminaires sur trois Uapaca (Euphorbiacées) nouveaux pour la flore congolaise. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 52: 204 – 209.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1933a). Matériaux pour la flore forestière du Congo Belge. XXI. Sur trois Uapaca (Euphorbiacées) nouveaux du Katanga. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 53: 56 – 62.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1933b). Matériaux pour la flore forestière du Congo Belge XXIII. Trois Uapaca (Euphorbiacées) congolais. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 53: 307 – 312.
  • De Wildeman, E. (1936). Contributions à l’étude des espèces du genre Uapaca Baill. (Euphorbiacées). Mém. Inst. Roy. Colon. Belge, Sect. Sci. Nat. IV(5): 1 – 192.
  • Delevoy, G. (1929). La question forestière au Katanga. II. Les essences forestières du Katanga. Office de publicité, Bruxelles.
  • Devred, R. (1957). Limite phytogéographique occidento-méridionale de la Région Guinéenne au Kwango. Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 27: 417 – 431.
  • Devred, R., Sys, C., & Berce, J. M. (1958). 10. Kwango. A et B. Notice explicative de la carte des sols et de la végétation. INEAC, Bruxelles.
  • Duvigneaud, P. (1949). Les « Uapaca » (Euphorbiacées) des forêts claires du Congo méridional. Bull. Séances Inst. Roy. Colon. Belge 20: 863 – 892.
  • Engler, A. (1910). Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas insbesondere seiner tropische Gebiete. IX. (1). Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G. F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22.
  • Germain, R. (1949). Reconnaissance géobotanique dans le nord du Kwango. Série Scientifique, 43. Institut national pour l’étude agronomique du Congo belge, Bruxelles.
  • Hiern, W. P. (1900). Catalogue of the African plants collected by F. Welwitsch in 1853 – 1861. Dicotyledons, 4. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Hutchinson, J. (1912a). 1321. Uapaca gossweileri. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1912: 101 – 102.
  • Hutchinson, J. (1912b). Uapaca. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa 6 (1): 634 – 642. Lovell Reeve & Co, London.
  • Lebrun, J.-P. & Stork, A. (2006). Tropical African Plants. Ecology and distribution. 2. Euphorbiaceae-Dichapetalaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Malaisse, F. (1997). Se nourrir en forêt claire africaine. Approche écologique et nutritionnelle. Les Presses agronomiques de Gembloux & CTA, Gembloux & Wageningen.
  • Meerts, P. & Hasson, M. (2016). Arbres et arbustes du Haut-Katanga. Jardin botanique Meise, Meise.
  • Meerts, P. (2016). An annotated checklist to the trees and shrubs of the Upper Katanga (D.R. Congo). Phytotaxa 258: 201 – 250.
  • Mwase, W., Mtalika, L., Kachamba, D. J. & Kwapata, M. B. (2015). Growth performance of Uapaca kirkiana Müell. Arg provenances in a breeding seedling orchard in Malawi. J. Biodivers. Managem. Forest. 4: 2.
  • Müller Argoviensis, J. (1864a). Neue Euphorbiaceen des Herbariums Hooker in Kew, auszugweise vorläufig mitgetheilt aus dem Manuscript für De Candolle’s Prodromus. Flora 47: 513 – 520.
  • Müller Argoviensis, J. (1864b). Euphorbiaceae novae a Cl. Dr. Welwitsch in Africa aequinoctiali occidentali lectae. J. Bot. 2: 327 – 339.
  • Ngulube, M. R., Hall, J. B. & Maghembe, J. A. (1996). A review of the silviculture and resource potential of a miombo fruit tree: Uapaca kirkiana (Euphorbiaceae). J. Trop. Forest Sci. 8: 395 – 411.
  • Pax, F. & Hoffmann, K. (1922). Euphorbiaceae-Phyllanthoideae-Phyllanthaceae-Uapacinae. In: A. Engler (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich, IV, fam. 147. XV, pp. 298 – 311. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Pax, F. (1894). Euphorbiaceae africanae. II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst 19: 76 – 127.
  • Pax, F. (1904). Euphorbiaceae africanae VII. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34: 368 – 376.
  • Phiri, P. S. M. (2005). A checklist of Zambian vascular plants. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1988). 74. Uapaca. In: R. M. Polhill (ed.), Euphorbiaceae (Part 2): pp. 566 – 571. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1993). Notes on African Euphorbiaceae XXIX: Uapaca. Kew Bull. 48: 611 – 617.
  • Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1996). Euphorbiaceae. In: G. V. Pope (ed.), Flora Zambesiaca 9: 1 – 337. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. (1948). Les territoires phytogéographiques du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Atlas géneral du Congo belge. Institut Royal Colonial Belge, Bruxelles.
  • Smith, P. & Allen, Q. (2004). Field guide to the trees and shrubs of the miombo woodlands. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Werger, M. J. A. & Coetzee, B. J. (1978). The Sudano-Zambezian region. In: M. J. A. Werger (ed.), Biogeography and ecology of southern Africa, pp. 301 – 462. Junk, The Hague.
  • White, F. (1983). The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the Unesco/AETFAT/UNESCO vegetation map of Africa. Unesco, Paris.
  • White, F. (coll. Angus, A.) (1962). Forest flora of Northern Rhodesia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • van Wyk, B. & van Wyk, P. (1997). Field guide to trees of southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Harley, R.M. [9159] Tanzania K:SPC-16788.000 No
Greenway. [3615] Tanzania K005683103 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.; Taylor, P. [9631] Tanzania K:SPC-24463.000 No
Newbould, J.; Jefford, T. [2189] Tanzania K:SPC-15846.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E.; Taylor, P. [9627] Tanzania K:SPC-24510.000 No


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