Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 377 (1917)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Ethiopia to S. Africa, SE. China to Tropical Asia. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Aldabra, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Angola, Bahamas, Chad, Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae). Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Mao, A.A. & Dash, S.S. (2020). Flowering Plants of India an Annotated Checklist (Dicotyledons) 1: 1-970. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Chakrabarty, T. (2010). The family Flacourtiaceae in Sikkim state, India - A synopsis. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 785-787.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae). Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 48 (1968).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 226 (1961).
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 3: 141, Addenda (1970).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 265 (1962).
  • Gilg in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 440, fig. 201 (1925).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 231 (1949).
  • Merrill, Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amboina: 377 (1917).
  • Palgrave, Trees Centr. Afr.: 189, photo. & t. (1957).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 148 (1952).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 286, t. 47/B (1960).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700] Thailand K000591192 Holotype Yes
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700] Thailand K000591193 Type Yes
May 1, 1994 Kirk, J. [s.n.] Mozambique K000231254 Type Yes
Jan 1, 1973 Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2039] Ethiopia K000231255 Type Yes
Jan 1, 1957 Shantz, H.L. [390] Botswana K000489294 Yes
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422] Botswana K000489295 Yes
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422] Botswana K000489296 Yes
Jan 1, 1957 Son, G., van [28842] Botswana K000489297 Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Thorel, M. [9049] K000591194 Unknown Type Material Yes
Nov 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] India K000591203 Unknown Type Material Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Tsang, W.T. [425] China K000591209 Isotype Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Cole [47] India K000591204 Unknown Type Material Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Balansa, B. [3165] Vietnam K000591195 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591208 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591205 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [13/0] K000591206 Unknown Type Material Yes
Birnbaum, P. [943] Mali K001532723 Yes
Osborne, J.; Beira, B.; Issufo, I.; Matimele, H.; Mucaleque, P. [JO1324] Mozambique K000569872 Yes
Davis, A.P.; Rakotonasolo, F. [APD 2513] Madagascar K:SPC-64177.000 No
Smith, P.A. [1787] Botswana K000489298 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.; Taylor, P. [10699] Tanzania K:SPC-16190.000 No
McWhirter, J. [145] Madagascar K:SPC-32208.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [2790A] Zambia K:SPC-21814.000 No
Harris, T. [139] Mozambique K000545119 Yes
Timberlake, J. [s.n.] Malawi K000614805 No
Milne-Redhead, E.; Taylor, P. [10699] Tanzania K:SPC-35450.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124490 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124491 Unknown Type Material Yes
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6676] India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124496 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124495 Unknown Type Material Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124497 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124492 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124493 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124494 Unknown Type Material Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0