Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, SE. China to Tropical Asia. It is used as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cerezo del gobernador, ciruela del gobernador

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, usually dioecious, usually spiny; young branches glabrous to pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with the blade usually ovate to elliptic, 2.5–12 x 2–8 cm, obtusely acuminate to rounded at the apex, glabrous to pubescent, serrate-crenate to subentire, with 4–7 pairs of lateral nerves; petiole up to 20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers sometimes solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm; disk lobed, clasping the base of the ovary; styles spreading Male flowers in racemes 0.5–2 cm long; pedicels up to 1 cm long; sepals broadly ovate, 1.5–2.5 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, reddish when ripe, up to 2.5 cm across, with persistent styles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–10 x 4–7 mm.
Ecology
Altitude c. 20 m.
Distribution
S3 East Africa, widespread in tropical Africa and eastwards to S Asia and Malesia

[FTEA]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, generally spiny, up to 10 m. tall; bark rough; spines of the trunk sometimes branched, up to 12 cm. long.
Morphology General Indumentum
Vegetative parts varying from glabrous to densely pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves also variable in shape and size; blade ovate or elliptic, sometimes suborbicular or obovate, apex obtusely acuminate, obtuse or rounded, base cuneate to rounded, membranous to almost coriaceous, serrulate-crenate, or more rarely subentire, 2.5–12(–16) cm. long, 2–8 cm. broad; lateral nerves 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent on both faces, as is the ± dense reticulation; petiole up to 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers dioecious, or occasionally bisexual (1 or several branches of a ♀ specimen with perfect flowers, which, however, bear fewer stamens than in the ♂ ones). Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm. Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long.
sex Male
Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long. Disk lobulate. Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous. Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary. Disk lobulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate.
sex Female
Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate. Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm. Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globular, reddish to reddish black when ripe, fleshy, up to 2.5 cm. across, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–10 mm. long, 4–7 mm. broad; testa rugose, pale brown.
Figures
Fig. 20.
Habitat
Woodland, wooded grassland and bushland, often riparian; 0–2400 m.
Distribution
K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 widespread in tropical and subtropical Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Seychelles, also in Asia and Malesia, sometimes cultivated for its edible though acid fruits, or escaped from cultivation

[FZ]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 10 m. tall, with the bark rough and yellowish or orange-brown, occasionally silvery on young branches; axillary straight spines present or absent on the branches, sometimes with fearsome branching spines up to 12 cm. long on the trunk near the base or with very spiny coppice shoots.
Morphology General Indumentum
All the vegetative parts except the older branches vary from quite glabrous to densely pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2.5–12 x 1.3–7.5 cm., very variable, membranous or coriaceous, suborbicular, ovate, elliptic, obovate or ovate-elliptic, apex rounded, obtusely or rarely obtusely acuminate at the apex, base usually cuneate, occasionally rounded, margins crenate, crenate-serrulate or subentire, nerves in 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent above and below, venation laxly reticulate; petiole up to 1.3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers dioecious or occasionally bisexual in short axillary racemes or occasionally solitary in the axils; peduncles very short; rhachis up to 2 cm. long, ± pubescent; pedicels up to 1 cm. long, ± pubescent, with caducous, deltoid, pubescent bracts at the base. Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate. Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens. Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 1.5–2.5 x 1.5–2.5 mm., imbricate, united for about 1 mm. at the base, broadly ovate, acute or rounded at the apex, pubescent on both sides.
sex Male
Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
sex Female
Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate.
sex Hermaphrodite
Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit reddish or reddish-black when ripe, up to 2.5 cm. in diam., fleshy, globose, becoming sulcate when dry, glabrous, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded or thereabouts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 8 x 7 mm., obovoid and somewhat flattened; testa pale brown, rugose.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Elevation range: 0–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[FSOM]
Use
Sometimes cultivated for its fruits that are edible though acid.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Aldabra, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Angola, Bahamas, Chad, Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 1994 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000231254 holotype Yes
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591192 holotype Yes
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591193 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1973 Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2039], Ethiopia K000231255 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1957 Shantz, H.L. [390], Botswana K000489294 No
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489296 No
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489295 No
Jan 1, 1957 Son, G. van [28842], Botswana K000489297 No
Nov 1, 1953 Tsang, W.T. [425], Hainan K000591209 isotype Yes
Nov 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000591203 Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Cole [47], Tamil Nadu K000591204 Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Balansa, B. [3165], Vietnam K000591195 Yes
Nov 1, 1953 Thorel, M. [9049] K000591194 Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591208 Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [13/0] K000591206 Yes
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591205 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 16190.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [2790A], Zambia 21814.000 No
McWhirter, J. [145], Madagascar 32208.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 35450.000 No
Davis, A.P. [APD 2513], Madagascar 64177.000 No
Harris, T. [139], Mozambique K000545119 No
Smith, P.A. [1787], Botswana K000489298 No
Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614805 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124490 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124493 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124491 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124494 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124497 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124495 Yes
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124496 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124492 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124479 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124480 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124487 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124489 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124477 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124488 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124481 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124483 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124484 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124485 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124482 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124478 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124486 Yes

First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 377 (1917)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae). Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India. Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Chakrabarty, T. (2010). The family Flacourtiaceae in Sikkim state, India - A synopsis. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 785-787.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae). Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 48 (1968).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 226 (1961).
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 3: 141, Addenda (1970).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 265 (1962).
  • Gilg in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 440, fig. 201 (1925).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 231 (1949).
  • Merrill, Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amboina: 377 (1917).
  • Palgrave, Trees Centr. Afr.: 189, photo. & t. (1957).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 148 (1952).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 286, t. 47/B (1960).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0