Genus:
Bromus L.

Bromus catharticus Vahl

This species is accepted, and its native range is Venezuela to S. South America. It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 4000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 4000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 80-100 cm long. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; effuse; 10-40 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 16-40 mm long; 4-10 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 16-40 mm long; 4-10 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 0.9 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 11-17 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 9-13 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile florets imbricate to tip. Fertile lemma oblong; laterally compressed; 12-20 mm long; 3-7 mm wide; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; distinctly keeled; 9-13 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough on veins. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 1-9 mm long overall. Palea 0.7-0.7 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.5-4 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: southwestern and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and north-central. North America: eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1000–4000 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cebadilla, cebadilla criolla, criolla, hierba de perro, maleza de perro, paja de perro, pajaeperro, pasto blanco, pasto rescate, triguillo, yerba de perro

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Vendeaguja de montaña

[UPB]
Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Doubtfully present in:

Cyprus

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Ecuador, Juan Fernández Is., Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Algeria, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bermuda, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madeira, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Zimbabwe

Bromus catharticus Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 21, 1988 Bolivia (La Paz) K001471797 Yes
Jul 21, 1988 Bolivia (La Paz) K001471798 Yes
Mathews [717] K000308517 Yes
Riedel [2147], Brazil K001101252 Yes
Douglas [222], USA K000795108 holotype Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001101253 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T.D. [492], Brazil K001101245 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [5083], Brazil K001101246 Yes
Kuhlmann, M. [s.n.], Brazil K001101251 Yes
Triana, J. [299], Colombia K001101254 Yes
Sendulsky, T. [950], Brazil K001101247 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4417], Brazil K001101250 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [2076], Brazil K001101244 Yes
Lanna, J.P. [1647], Brazil K001101249 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [5461], Brazil K001101242 Yes
Ferreira, F.M. [1228], Brazil K001101255 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [2666], Brazil K001101243 Yes
Smith, L.B. [12919], Brazil K001101248 Yes
Colombia K001471758 Yes
Colombia K001471759 Yes
Colombia K001471760 Yes
Colombia K001471761 Yes
Colombia K001471762 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [4399], Colombia K001471763 Yes
Colombia K001471764 Yes
Venezuela K001471765 Yes
Venezuela K001471766 Yes
Venezuela K001471767 Yes
Venezuela K001471768 Yes
Venezuela K001471769 Yes
Ecuador K001471770 Yes
Ecuador K001471771 Yes
Ecuador K001471772 Yes
Ecuador K001471773 Yes
Ecuador K001471774 Yes
Ecuador K001471775 Yes
Ecuador K001471776 Yes
Peru K001471778 Yes
Peru K001471779 Yes
Peru K001471780 Yes
Peru K001471781 Yes
Peru K001471782 Yes
Peru K001471783 Yes
Peru K001471784 Yes
Peru K001471785 Yes
Peru K001471786 Yes
Peru K001471787 Yes
Peru K001471788 Yes
Peru K001471789 Yes
Peru K001471790 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471791 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471792 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471793 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471794 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471795 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471796 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471799 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471800 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471801 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471802 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471803 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471804 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471805 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471806 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471807 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471808 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471809 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471810 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471811 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471812 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471813 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471814 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471815 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471816 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471817 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471818 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471819 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471820 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471821 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471822 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471823 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471824 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471825 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471826 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471827 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471828 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471829 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471830 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471831 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471832 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471833 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471834 Yes
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471835 Yes
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471836 Yes
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471837 Yes
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471838 Yes
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471839 Yes
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471840 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471841 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471842 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471843 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471844 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471845 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471846 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471847 Yes
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471848 Yes
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471849 Yes
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471850 Yes
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471851 Yes
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471852 Yes
Ecuador K001471777 No
Spruce, R. [5816], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201591 Yes
Spruce, R. [5815], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201590 Yes
Lechler [1570], Peru Bromus unioloides K000308513 Yes
Spruce, R. [5816], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201592 Yes

First published in Symb. Bot. 2: 22 (1791)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Nobis, M. & Mowak, A. (2011). New data on the vascular flora of the central Pamir Alai mountains (Tajikistan, central Asia) Polish Botanical Journal 56: 195-201.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0