Craterostigma Hochst.

First published in Flora 24: 668 (1841)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India.

Descriptions

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Morphology General Habit
Rosetted perennial herbs.
Morphology Stem
Stem very reduced and often encased in old leafbases, hirsute to ± glabrous.
Morphology Roots
Roots usually coloured yellow, orange or red, fibrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear-lanceolate to broadly ovate, sessile or with short petiole
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences capitate or shortly racemose, usually pedunculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers with a short or long pedicel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed or -winged, teeth 5, subequal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue, purple or white, upper lip hooded, entire or emarginate, lower lip with 3 broad lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4; upper pair with broad straight filaments, included under the hood, lower pair inserted in the throat; filaments with a yellow appendage at the base and sharply angled about the middle; anthers bithecal, thecae divaricate; style filiform, dilated and very shortly bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an oblong to globose capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous.
Note
In the concept of the genus accepted here the species with slender erect stems included earlier in Craterostigma are now placed in Torenia.
[FTEA]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with orange-red to yellow rhizome and roots, usually pilose, at least on lower leaf surface; stems 4-angled
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in a basal rosette, opposite, subsessile, usually with petiole-like base, with palmate venation, entire to dentate or crenate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers pedicellate in axillary 1- to 10-flowered bracteate racemes arising from leaf rosette; bracteoles absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, upper lip 2-fid or entire, lower lip 3-lobed, tube cylindric, with glandular hairs on inner side
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short, exserted, filaments of the lower pair geniculate, Z-shaped, geniculations usually yellow, with glandular hairs and papillae, anthers touching in pairs, with 2 equal mostly glabrous thecae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ovoid, with straight filiform style; stigma 2-lobed, sensitive
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule with septicidal dehiscence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, alveolate.
Distribution
About 25 species in tropical and southern Africa, Arabia and India
Ecology
Surviving the dry seasons as poikilohydrics.
Note
C. smithii S. Moore has been recorded from Somalia on the basis of the type collection, Donaldson-Smith s.n. from “Jara”. However, this locality is in southern Ethiopia, and the species is therefore omitted here.
[FSOM]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Rosette perennial herbs, stem very short often encased in old leaf-bases, hirsute to subglabrous.
Morphology Roots
Roots fibrous, sometimes coloured yellow, orange or red.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile or shortly petioled, linear-lanceolate to broadly ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence capitate or shortly racemose, usually pedunculate; flowers subsessile to rather long-pedicellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed or slightly winged, teeth 5, subequal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue, purple or white, upper lip hooded, entire or emarginate, lower lip with 3 broad lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4; upper pair included under the hood with broad straight filaments; lower pair inserted in the throat, each filament with a yellow appendage at the base and sharply angled about the middle, thecae divaricate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style filiform, dilated and very shortly bilobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an oblong capsule, about as long as the calyx; seeds numerous.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0