Andropogon distachyos L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1046 (1753), nom. cons.
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Canary Islands, Medit. to Africa, Arabian Peninsula. It is a perennial and grows primarily in the subtropical biome.

Descriptions

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms 25-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 7-20 cm long; 1-5 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal. Racemes 2; paired; 4-14 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes linear, or clavate (slightly). Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform; with simple rim. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear, or clavate (slightly); ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 6-11 mm long; shorter than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; dentate; 2 -fid; acuminate; awned; one glume awned; with 3-9 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 8-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 1-2 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 6-11 mm long; shorter than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; dentate; 2 -fid; acuminate; awned; one glume awned; with 3-9 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 8-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 1-2 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; asymmetrical; 1 length of spikelet; herbaceous, or coriaceous; much thinner above; 2-keeled; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged broadly; winged above (0.5-0.66 length). Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct; 7-11 in number. Lower glume surface convex, or flat, or concave; glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; caudate. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled; keeled above. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 4-10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 15-30 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
Distribution
Europe: southwestern and southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: Indo-China. Australasia: Australia.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA.
[GB]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, 30–75 cm high.
[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial, the basal sheaths silky pubescent below; culms 25–100 cm. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 7–20 cm. long, 1–5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes paired, terminal, 4–14 cm. long; internodes and pedicels stoutly linear to slightly clavate, ciliate, ± cupuliform at the tip.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 8–16 mm. long, including a large oblong callus 1–2 mm. long; lower glume lanceolate, slightly convex to slightly concave on the back, herbaceous to thinly coriaceous, evenly 7–11-nerved between the lateral keels, glabrous to pubescent, winged on the keels for 1/2–2/3 of their length, the wings membranous and confluent to a caudate asymmetrically bidentate tip; upper glume with an awn 4–10 mm. long; upper lemma bilobed to the middle, with an awn 1.5–3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet lanceolate, 6–11 mm. long, herbaceous, bidentate, with a slender bristle 3–9 mm. long. Sessile spikelet 8–16 mm. long, including a large oblong callus 1–2 mm. long; lower glume lanceolate, slightly convex to slightly concave on the back, herbaceous to thinly coriaceous, evenly 7–11-nerved between the lateral keels, glabrous to pubescent, winged on the keels for 1/2–2/3 of their length, the wings membranous and confluent to a caudate asymmetrically bidentate tip; upper glume with an awn 4–10 mm. long; upper lemma bilobed to the middle, with an awn 1.5–3 cm. long.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet lanceolate, 6–11 mm. long, herbaceous, bidentate, with a slender bristle 3–9 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 180/1, p. 769.
Habitat
Dry slopes in mountain grassland; 1700–3000 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K6 T2 T3 T7 U1 shores of the Mediterranean and Arabia
[FTEA]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Slightly decumbent caespitose perennial; culms c. 90 cm high, unbranched.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf sheaths glabrous; ligule a very short (c. 1 mm) minutely fringed membrane; laminas 7–24 cm × 2–9 mm, loosely pilose, flat, tapering to a fine point at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes in terminal pairs, 6–6.5 cm long (up to 10.5 cm outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), cylindrical, clearly exserted from the spatheoles only at maturity; peduncles longer than the racemes; internodes and pedicels slightly clavate, ciliate with hairs up to 3.5 mm long on one margin and a few short hairs on the other (particularly noticeable on the internodes).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets similar; inferior glumes asymmetrically beaked, with two broad (0.5 mm) marginal wings, pubescent; superior glumes awned. Pedicelled spikelet male, 9–9.5 mm long; inferior glume with an awn c. 6 mm long; superior glume with an awn c. 2 mm long; superior lemma bidentate at the apex. Sessile spikelet 11–12 mm long, obtuse at the base, inserted in the internode apex; inferior glume with a shallow median groove, asymmetrically winged, 2-toothed at the apex; superior glume ± flat on the back and with an awn 6–7 mm long; superior lemma bifid in the upper 2/3; awn 23–26 mm long, geniculate; anthers 2.5–3 mm long, straw-coloured.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 11–12 mm long, obtuse at the base, inserted in the internode apex; inferior glume with a shallow median groove, asymmetrically winged, 2-toothed at the apex; superior glume ± flat on the back and with an awn 6–7 mm long; superior lemma bifid in the upper 2/3; awn 23–26 mm long, geniculate; anthers 2.5–3 mm long, straw-coloured.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet male, 9–9.5 mm long; inferior glume with an awn c. 6 mm long; superior glume with an awn c. 2 mm long; superior lemma bidentate at the apex.
[FZ]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Sources

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    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
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    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
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    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0