Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Mongolia, NW. Africa. It is used as a poison and a medicine and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1800–4500 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putum
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Alpistillo, Díctamo, Grama, Oloroso, Paja aromática, Pasto de olor

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths papery; withering. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-75(-100) cm long; 1-3 -noded. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-5(-7) mm long. Leaf-blades 1-12(-30) cm long; 1.5-5(-9) mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; oblong, or ovate; continuous, or interrupted; 1-12 cm long; 0.6-1.5 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.5-1 mm long; pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 7-9.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 7-9.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 3.7-5.2 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein smooth. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 7-9.5 mm long; 3-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with hyaline margins; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein smooth. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 2.8-3.6 mm long; 1.5-2 length of fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 4-5 -veined; pilose; emarginate; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.6 way up back of lemma; 2-4 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 3-3.5 mm long; 1 length of lower sterile floret; membranous; pilose; emarginate; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.1-0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 6-9 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; 1.7-2.4 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; (2.9-)3.5-4.8(-5.5) mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; 2 mm long. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Aveneae. TAC.

[KBu]

Mashau A. C. 2016. A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies. Kew Bulletin 71:18. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9629-6

Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Distribution
frequency in southern africa. locally common. naturalised from europe. introduced in north and south america, australia, tasmania and new zealand. south africa: kwazulu-natal and eastern cape.
Ecology
Humic soils in moist, swampy areas.
Morphology General Habit
Loosely or densely tufted perennial 300 – 600 (– 1000) mm high
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade 150 – 300 × 2 – 8 mm, expanded, apex acute to acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence spike-like, 10 – 90 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelet 7 – 10 mm long; glumes acute, hyaline, glabrous or minutely hairy on the back, keel scaberulous; lower glume up to 5 mm long, 1-nerved; upper glume 7 – 10 mm long, longer than and enfolding the spikelet; lower lemma 3.0 – 3.5 mm long, always dark brown, densely hairy; upper floret lemma 1.5 – 2.0 mm long, glabrous, awnless; anther 4.0 – 4.5 mm long.
Note
Flowering Oct. to Feb. Anthoxanthum odoratum resembles A. ecklonii, which has the lower lemma longer (5 mm long), lighter coloured and sparsely hairy.
Type
Type: Europe. Sweet vernal grass.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1800 - 4500 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 1800 - 4500 m.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alpistillo, coluda, grama, grama olorosa, oloroso, paja, pasto de olor, pasto dulce, rabo de zorro

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[KBu]
Use
Introduced as a fodder grass to some countries. Fresh plant smells of coumarin.

[UPB]
Use Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arkansas, Assam, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Georgia, Greenland, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Maine, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Sakhalin, South Australia, South Carolina, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

Spanish
Alpistillo, grama, oloroso, pasto de olor, díctamo, paja aromática.

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Baron, R. [2050], Madagascar K000345008
Baron, R. [2050], Madagascar K000345009
Dombrowski, L.T. [2019], Brazil K001101036
Castellanos, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001101040
Baron, R. [4098], Madagascar K000345010
Love, A. [373], Sweden K000838021 isotype
Cope, T.A. [RBG 43], United Kingdom K000914532
Eiten, G. [6622], Brazil K001101039
Glaziou, A. [16618], Brazil K001101041
Glaziou, A. [20093], Brazil K001101043
Grazziotin, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001101037
Reverchon, E. [403], Corse K000838020
Eiten, G. [6630], Brazil K001101038
Fay, M.F. [MFF204], United Kingdom K000696478
Carauta, J.P.P. [525], Brazil K001101044
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16618] K001101042
Grazziotin, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001101035

First published in Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Mashau, A.C. (2016). A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies Kew Bulletin 71(18): 1-5.
  • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Snow, N. & Davidse, G. (2011). Notes on grasses (Poaceae) in Hawai'i: 3 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 17-22.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Fish, L. & Victor, J. E. (2005). Anthoxanthum dregeanum (Nees) Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.
  • Fish, L. (2000). Poaceae (Gramineae). In: O. A. Leistner, Seeds plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10: 659 – 726.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. & Dallwitz, M. J. (1990). Grasses of southern Africa, Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 58.
  • Linnaeus 1753: 28
  • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.
  • Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M. C. (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19.
  • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1841). Florae Africanae australioris illustrationes monographicae. Prausnitz, Glogau.
  • Stapf, O. (1899). Gramineae. Flora capensis 7: 465 – 468. Lovell Reeve, London.
  • Stapf, O. (1910). Diagnoses africanae: XXXIV. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910(2): 59.
  • Trinius, C. B. (1839). Phalaridea. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3 (3): 78 – 84.
  • Victor, J. E., Fish, L. & Ellis, R. P. (2007). Anthoxanthum brevifolium Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Mouterde, P. (1966). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie 1(Texte): 1-563. Éditions de l'imprimerie Catholique, Beyrouth.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/